Sunday, March 31, 2019
The Marxist Theories Of International Relations Politics Essay
The Marxist Theories Of International Relations Politics EssayNothing to do with Marxism/Leninism as a State Ideology, although associated with it, and embarrassed by it. Marxism is a set of uninflected theories, that experience a renaissance today, because it appears clearly again, after the triumphalism of the 1990s, that Capitalism is in a constant crisis. In Latin America, in Asia, and even present in the USA, financial crises happen quite frequently. Also, even when capitalistic economy is working, it power non produce favourable out nonpluss for everybody. Globalisation is good for Ameri nookie companies, just right away not necessarily for the American blue collar worker.Strength of Marxism to actualise the role of the economy in politics and analyse why crises be part of it.In International Politics it investigates the role of world(a) capitalist economy in instauration politics. It is a surmise that is very disconcerting, for it demonstrates things that we usually dont necessitate to hear or know that our wealth in the West is underage upon the poverty and misery of the people in the other parts of the world. In Marxs words accumulation of wealth at one pole is, t presentfore, at the same time accumulation of misery, agony of t ve moderniseable oil, slavery, ignorance, brutality at the diametral pole.Hence, that1/5 of the worlds population is living in extreme poverty,30,000 children neglect every day from preventable diseases1 bn people dont fall in regain to clean waterIn 34 countries the life expectancy is now lower than it was in 1990is not a god- hand overn feature of our world, but to a significant extent caused by the way the global economy works. present we forget talk virtually four different theories that take rapture from Marxism. What do they open in common?Society and Politics argon a Totality. The division into History, Sociology, IR, Political Science, Economics and so on is mislead and problematic. Every issue, pro blem is part of this totality. Current example USA vs. Iraq what is pertinent? Military power, nuclear weapons, balance of power, regime type, culture, religion, economic involutions in oil and so on. So to isolate one of these point always misses that the prove is always a vast one and a complicated one.A materialist conception of history. History is driven by the tension between the government agency of production (labour, overlyls, technology, capital) and the transaction of production (the socio-economic conditions that prevail in a party Feudalism, Slaveholder society, Capitalism) Former transform and improve, straining against the latter during Feudalism, manufacturing needed more(prenominal) unornamented worker, undermining the bondage of peasants and the power of guilds. Slavery in 1865 was not single a moral depravity but also economically outdated. It is too in efficacious to compete with modern manufacturing in large scale. This tension will over time lead to the transformation of social relations the discharge of peasants in Europe, of slaves here in the USA, and so on. Also, the economic sector (means and relations of production) dominates the governmental, legal, and cultural system. This superstructure reflects and rein pull ups the way the economic sector, the base is run. We have a political system that supports and reinforces capitalist property, our laws protect property, our welf atomic number 18 states keep the people viable so they wont revolt or starve. Our culture facilitates the reaping of profits for large companies and corporations fashion, music, arts, entertainment, also education is guided towards profit maximisation of capital.Class is a central concept in every society there is part conflict. In capitalist society, there is the conflict between bourgeoisie and proletariat. A bit too simple perhaps today, but if you know what Enron did to its employees, you get an idea that the interest of the capitalist argon not always the interests of the workers or employees.Philosophers have tho interpreted the world in various ways, the point, however, is to transfer it. Emancipation and change were the goal for him to end capitalism and its exploitation of the workers, and to cause a more just society. This is still on the agenda, not to the lowest degree in global politics. human Systems Theory (Wallerstein)Based on insights that globalised capitalism is creating a core-periphery in the world, and that all economic interactions take place in spite of appearance a global context. The location of states in this system determines their behaviour and their interactions. paginate 207Core industrialised and modern parts of world economy. Periphery the put-upon part from which we receive cheap resources and raw material. Terms of trade ar deteriorating in the long run for Periphery raw material gets cheaper, make goods more expansive.Semi-Periphery plays an interesting part stabilizes capitalism in C ore by providing cheap labour and by taking up labour intense industries that move out of core.Temporal factorcyclical rhythms expansion and compaction stock market, trade, etcsecular trends over time moving up or d aver through cyclical rhythmscontradictions central part of capitalism crisis of underconsumption lay off workers makes profits rise, but then no-one buys stuff, so even more lay-offsCrisis of a whole world system, possibility for changeGramscianismProblem that Antonio Gramsci dealt with how deduct there is no revolution occurring in Western Europe? How can capitalism stabilize itself and make workers believe that Capitalism is also in their interest? Why is nobody really challenging it?Hegemony dominant political orientation distributed through society via media, culture, education, churches, etc (civil society). Its a soft form of power, complementing coercion. People are raised and socialized to accept no alternative to Capitalism, schools teach about its virtues , and everybody takes it for granted that we are a capitalist society. So the Superstructure (politics, culture, etc) feeds back and stabilizes the basis.In international politics, Robert Cox above all has used and developed these fascinate ideas about the relationship between material reality (economics) and ideological superstructure (politics and culture) in investigating the way this works in the international economy.Success of relax trade and neoliberalism all over the world needs to be explained How come everybody assumes that free trade is the solution to the economic problems of every country, when it so blatantly is not?As Cox points out, theory is always a theory for some one, and for some purpose. Its never neutral and objective, it always benefits some and does not benefit or oppresses others. Values about right and wrong are inherent and implicit in any theory.And the hegemonic ideology of neoliberalism does just that it benefits the interest of the rich and powerful in world economics.It opens up markets to their powerful and efficient companies.It makes resources and raw materials available for a cheap price, as it forces these countries to focus on those resources for income, and forces them into a competition with each other.It allows Western companies to snap up privatised companies in Third World countries at bargain prices.. Thus, by forcing the countries of the underdeveloped world into the free market economy, we do this above all to support our own interests. By claiming and spreading the news that there is no alternative to neoliberalism and free trade, we abolish alternatives for these countries. And if they still resist, ideology is enforced by international institutions. sideslip discussed in Box 10.3 is very good here.It should be noted in this context that those countries that successfully developed their economies since the 1950s in the Third World (South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, India) did so with a significant rol e for the state and protectionist policies. Education systems were crucial.If countries resist, the IMF refused to give them financial aid that they need to get out of debt.Also, further problem West itself does not take free trade all that seriously. OXFAM tale HERE.Marxism and GlobalisationThe growing integration of national economies, the increasing interdependence of societies, and the proliferation of global organisations and networks are in a sense nothing new to Marxism. They have been looking at these developments for the longest time Capitalism itself is the driving force behind it.Capitalism is expansive, and transformative. It constantly seeks new markets for its products, and it transforms the societies it reaches in this pursuit. Traditional societies that have survived through centuries are melted down and turned into modern capitalist societies with all the repercussions this has.And as economic developments and economic power will only increase in the future, these kind of theories will become more applicable than Realism and Liberalism. And as the globalising economy now produces more and more unenviable outcomes, not only in the Third World, but also here at home, we might also pay attention to the emancipatory aspect of Marxism and the psyche of transforming the global economy to make it fairer, and more just.