Wednesday, March 6, 2019

Platos Apology Of Socrates Essay

INTRODUCTION Plato makes it clear, especially in his Apology of Socrates, that he was one of Socrates devoted young existers. In that dialogue, Socrates is presented as mentioning Plato by seduce as one of those youths close enough to him to harbour been corrupted, if he were in fact guilty of corrupting the youth,1 and questioning why their fathers and brothers did not ill-use forward to testify against him if he was indeed guilty of much(prenominal) a crime. The relationship between Plato and Socrates is not unproblematic.The charges against Socrates says that he has two sets of accusations the old, coherentstanding charges that he is a criminal, a busybody, and a curious person who makes inquiries into the earth and sky, and the novel legal charges that he is guilty of corrupting the young, and of believe in unearthly topics of his own invention instead of the gods recognized by the State.2 Which he monetary value as charges stemmed from years of gossip and prejudice aga inst him and hence was unanswerable. The exam of Socrates is the central, unifying event of the great Platonic dialogues.The sticks that occasioned this Apology were as follow Aristophanes, at the instigation of Mellitus, undertook, in his comedy of the clouds, to ridicule the venerable grapheme of Socrates, on the stage and the way being once open to slander and defamation, the fickle and licentious populace paid no reverence to the philosopher, whom they had onward regarded as a being of a superior order.3When this had succeeded, Melitus stood forth to berate him, to readher with Anytus and Lycon and the philosopher was summoned before the tribunal of the Five Hundred. He was accused of make innovations in the religion of his country, and corrupting the youth. However, as both these accusations mustiness energize been obviously false to an unprejudiced tribunal, the accusers relied for the success of their cause on perjured witnesses, and the admire of the judges, whose ignorance would quickly yield to misrepresentation, and be influenced and guided by false blandness and fraudulent arts.In the Apology, Socrates tries to dismiss rumors that he is a sophist and defends himself against charges of scepticism in the gods and corruption of the young. Socrates insists that coarse-standing slander leave be the real cause of his demise, and says the legal charges be essentially false. Socrates storiedly denies being wise, and explains how his life as a philosopher was launched by the oracle at Delphi. He says that his quest to root the riddle of the oracle put him at odds with his fellow man, and that this is the grounds he has been mistaken for a menace to the city-state of A thuss.THE APOLOGY of SOCRATES Socrates begins by saying he does not subsist if the men of Athens (his jury) translation a good deal says gentlemen, concord been persuaded by his accusers.4 Plato often begins his Socratic dialogues with words that indicate the boilersuit idea of the dialogue in this case, I do not know. Indeed, in the Apology Socrates will suggest that philosophy consists solo of a sincere admission of ignorance, and that whatever wisdom he has, comes from his knowledge that he knows goose egg.Socrates asks the jury to judge him not by his oratorical skills, only by the truth. Socrates says he will not use ornate words and phrases that argon c atomic number 18fully arranged, but will speak the chance thoughts that come into his head. I know not, O Athenians, how my accusers whitethorn affect you I indeed have through them almost forgotten myself, so persuasively have they communicate though, as I may say, they have not asserted whatsoever thing, which is true.However, among the multitude of their false assertions I am most surprised at this, in which they say that you ought to bew are of being deceived by me, as if I were an eloquent speaker. For that, they should not be ashamed of asserting that which I will immediately confut e in reality, since in the present instance I shall appear to you to be by no means eloquent, this seems to me to be the work of impudence unless they call him eloquent who speaks the truth.The three men who brought the charges against Socrates were Anytus, son of a prominent Athenian, Anthemion. Anytus makes an important cameo appearance in Meno. Anytus appears unexpectedly while Socrates and Meno are discussing the acquisition of virtue. Having taken the position that virtue cannot be taught, Socrates adduces as order for this that many prominent Athenians have produced sons inferior to themselves. Socrates says this, and then proceeds to name names, including Pericles and Thucydides. Anytus becomes very offended, and warns Socrates that running people down could get him into trouble approximatelyday.Meletus, the only accuser to speak during Socrates defense. He is mentioned in another dialog, Euthyphro, but does not appear in person. Socrates says there that Meletus is a young inglorious with hooknose. In the Apology, Meletus allows himself to be cross-examined by Socrates and stumbles into a trap. Apparently not gainful attention to the very charges he is carry, he accuses Socrates of atheism and apparently, of believing in demi-gods.Lycon, about whom little is known he was, according to Socrates, a good example of the orators.O Athenian, I should answer the first false accusations of me, and my first accusers, Socrates claims to neer have been a teacher, in the sense of im varying knowledge to others. He cannot therefore be held responsible if any citizen turns bad. If he has corrupted anyone, why have they not come forward to be witnesses? Alternatively, if they do not realize that they have been corrupted, why have their relatives not stepped forward on their behalf? Many relatives of the young men associated with him, Socrates points out, are presently in the royal court to support him.5For many have been accusers of me to you for many years, and who have asserted nothing true, of whom I am more afraid than of Anytus and his accomplices, though these indeed are powerful in persuading but those are still more so, who having been familiar(predicate) with many of you from infancy, have persuaded you, and accused me falsely.6 For they have said, that there is one Socrates, a wise man, studious of things on high, and exploring every thing under the earth, and of believing in supernatural things of his own invention instead of the gods recognized by the State. These men, O Athenians, who spread this report, are my dire accusers.For those who hear it think that such as investigate these things do not believe that there are gods.7 In the next place, these accusers are numerous, and have accused me for a long time. They also said these things to you in that age in which you would most readily believe them, some of you being boys and lads and they accused me quietly, no one verbalize in my defence. Such even, as have persuaded you by employing envy and calumny, in concert with those who being persuaded themselves have persuaded others.Consider, therefore, as I have said, that my accusers are twofold, some having accused me lately, and others formerly and think that it is necessary I should answer the last mentioned of these first for you also have heard these my accusers, and much more than you have those by whom I have been recently accused. Be it so. I must defend myself then, O Athenians, and endeavor in this so short a space of time to remove from you the calumny that you have so long entertained.I wish, therefore, that this defence may effect something better both for you and me, and that it may contribute to some more important end. I think however that it will be attended with difficulty, and I am not enti intrust ignorant what the difficulty is. At the same time let this give the bounce as Divinity pleases. It is my business to obey the law, and to make my apology.8ConclusionSocrates concludes t his part of the Apology by reminding the jurors that he will not resort to the vernacular emotive tricks and arguments. He will not break down in tears, nor will he produce his three sons in the hope of swaying the jurors. He does not fear death nor will he act in a way contrary to his religious duty. He will rely solely on sound argument and the truth to present his case.9Socrates penalty speech angered the jurors.360 of them voted for the death penalty only 141 voted for a o.k. of 3,000 drachmae. Now Socrates has to respond to the verdict. He first addresses those who voted for death. He claims that it is not a lack of arguments that has resulted in his condemnation, but rather his unwillingness to stoop to the universal emotive appeals expected of any defendant facing death. Again, he insists that the campaigner of death does not absolve one from following the path of probity and truth.To those who voted for his acquittal, Socrates gives them encouragement He says that his daimon did not stop him from conducting his defence in the way that he did as a sign that it was the right thing to do. Therefore, death must be a blessing. It is either an annihilation (thus bringing eternal peace from all worries, and therefore not something to be very afraid of) or a migration to another place to meet souls of famous people such as Hesiod and Homer and heroes like Odysseus. With these, Socrates can hide his task of questioning.BibliographyLeo Strauss. Socrates and Aristophanic. New York, 1966.1 Pp 82-22 Pp83- 23 Pp 84-14 Pp 82-25pp143-16 Pp 138-27 Pp 84-28 Pp 180-29 Pp163-4

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