Sunday, March 31, 2019
Influence of the Economy on UK regimeThe UK rescue has undergone structural, financial, and policy-making reposition over the last cardinal years. polar ideologies and policies puzzle served to shape the birth between administration and scrimping in varying directions. Some elements, such as invoke interposition, have remained as a point of debate. Other f fareors, like globalisation, have only if recently developed. The constitution of UK governings as a whole has been shaped quite a heavily by major sparing events during this period, and the legacy left wing by the Conservative and Labor giving medications domiciliate hitherto be seen today. The context of this kin is contacted with the speculation of political miserliness. This is the image of rationality and growth of the foreswear securities industry.First, it is key to lastline the characteristics of the relationship the government and the thriftiness sh be. Clearly, a government influences the manner an scrimping works via its policies. The government uses 2 branches of policy, fiscal and monetary. Fiscal policy entails government spending whereas monetary policy involves manipulation interest rates. Both policy instruments are designed to achieve growth. The attempts of a government to influence sparing activity in the national economy are de attractived as macro-economic measures.Even the government itself is barrage as a typical business organisation in a open foodstuff economy. It has a limited budget, and it has to prioritize quality and cost. It sets itself certain monetary and economic targets which it aims to meet each financial year. The pass on also plays a all- crucial(a) role in providing a welfare show, where transfer payments are an important part of a circular flow of an economy. Transfer payments are avail given to plurality who are unemployed, or for any polar reason, are economically inactive. Aside from this, the government go forth pla y other roles of importance. The standard of markets and the encouragement of competition and entrepreneurship are all different areas in which the government contributes to the economy. If you break the relationship down further to involve the firms, the government still maintains influential involvement. The taxation system and enterprise schemes are just two of a long list of course of instructions with which government and business stay inter-connected. The standoff between the government and its economy is a crucial and significant setting of any dominant nation some the globe.One of the key changes in this relationship between governments and economies hasnt risen from external events. One of the components of this relationship has undergone significant change since 1979. When looking at the time period just before this, there had been various approaches to political economy which had begun and then collapsed. The Keynesian orthodoxy collapsed in the face of a persistent and unpredicted rate of inflation. s for perpetuallyally ideological change brought about its different substances on the relationship between government and economy. To generalize the change before and afterwards 1979, it is appropriate to state that the size and sort of government had changed, from big to small. considerable government, where regulation of markets, state intervention and command economics were the central characteristics, had been abolished. In came small government, where practices such as deregulation, privatization and unfreeze market economics were further and integrated. Under small government, the state would take a step spinal column from economic affairs, and adapt, to a small extent a laissez-faire approach. This change in government would be preferred by business and other capitalists. Certainly, this change was a landmark event in the economic theory of the state, and would shape the economic policies of the following governments.The tenures of Thatcher and Blair may have been under different parties, but towed the line of small government, less government intervention. A refreshed wave of neo-liberal or neo-classical practice had begun. The change in government style has been noted. Now, the effects of this change subscribe to be assessed, and much importantly, the critical elements need to be analyzed. First, the notion of state intervention and market failure has to be critically put under the microscope. The argument over whether the state should substitute in the countrys economy has been a drawn out affair. Certainly, under the new Thatcher government in the early 80s, state intervention in economic matters was the norm. Under Thatcher there was a authoritative attempt to deregulate markets and to transfer assets from public to the private sector. This policy of privatization, the sale of public sector firms to the private sector, had become the authentication of the 1980s Conservative tenure. Indeed, for many the overriding impression given by the Thatcher government was its interventionist stance in a wide course of markets.The idea behind this privatization program was that first, opening up large monopoly pillow slip companies allowed the implementation of private expertise and involvement, which wasnt initially present. This would chairman to a great level of efficiency and productivity. Second, privatization would show that even natural monopolies were collapse hand direct by arms length regulation that committed the government to put in perpetually. Other Thatcher projects like the Private Finance chess opening (PFI) and Public-Private partnerships invoked the idea of bringing a isolated private sector into the fray, and tapping its experience and expertise to bring a positive effect. The Public Finance Initiative used private finance to build projects and private management to run them, with the government paying a service charge for the use of the asset.Certainly, this p rogram brought to the end the idea of heavy state control. The economic policies of Thatcher were a defined change from the period before. Labor would continue the main theme of free market policies. However, the period under Labor also the nationalization of about of Britains big companies. The Financial Crisis of 2007 saw Labor bring the royal stag Bank of Scotland, Northern Bank and Lloyds TSB into government ownership. The government was forced to center emergency funds into the banks to restore confidence in the banking system and to stay off a complete collapse. The need for government intervention wasnt lucky by either the banking sector or the general public, but this intervention was one of the risks which came with a free market economy. As free market economies involve little regulation, the banks in this case, went past many of their remit when it came to what practices they could and should lease out. In such an economy, it is often assumed that the market should be left to regulate for itself, but such an assumption failed completely here. Alongside the banking crisis, the government was forced to introduce other macro-economic measures, such as quantitative easing designed to increase specie supply and consumer spending, and other more micro-economic ground measures such as the car scrappage scheme, which concentrated on boosting car sales.Government intervention was quite self-made during this period, with Britain return to relative growth by 2009 and the banking sector beginning to recover. The period in high spiritslights the issue of whether state intervention is ever invisible to the economy. The idea behind dropping a command economic model is that you want an economy to work in a way for which it aims to maximize profit and creates growth and enterprise. Taking out the notion of state intervention means that individual companies and markets bequeath have to work more efficiently and more professionally then they would if stat e assistance was on hand to help on any time. Regulation and risk-taking would have to be at an acceptable level, as the responsibility and successfulness of a business will depend solely on its management. Thus, should the business lapse into trouble, and the government doesnt intervene, it will be the companys bosses that will feel the wrath of its shareholders. However, when the situation at stakes involves a sector which the whole country depends on and uses a lot of the time, e.g. banks, it becomes progressively difficult for the government not to take action. The banks were a big concern for the public and small businesses, as there would be a high chance of savings being lost and businesses losing investment. It was important for all people involved to see the banks recover and be halted from the verge of collapse. The period has shown two things. Firstly, the UK economy has definitely assembled a free market and neo-liberal economic agenda, with markets allowed to act as they wish within an appropriate limit.Secondly, the government has the tools and the power to intervene in markets which grossly abuse the power allocated and allowed to them. Another aspect of political economy which has developed over the last thirty years is globalization. The stipulation globalization more accurately describes a number of processes by which products, people, companies, money and information are able to move freely and quickly rough the world, unimpeded by national borders or other territorial limitations. The effect of globalization is developing as each day goes by. The global economy has undergone significant change over the last few years, with workers and businesses all around the world being influenced by events happening in other move of the globe. Trade and labour are some of the key parts of how globalization has developed. Trade between countries has grown quite extensively, with the European Union a good example of how trade relations have lengthene d. Also, companies are today beginning to locate businesses abroad because of cheap labour and favorable tax incentives. All these events have led to a rapid rise in global economic theory and policy.Globalization has helped create TNCs (transnational companies) whose injury name is known all around the world. The effect of globalization is that the communicating and influence of national government in its can break down easily. For example, if a company in the UK feels it is being taxed unfairly, or feels that its UK labour force isnt as efficient as it could be in other countries, it may now have the ability to get off without causing itself much damage financially. If the government knows that its hand can be forced easily by the developing global market, it will be forced to succumb to the any demand of its national businesses. Ironically, globalization can also be classed as an argument for state intervention. Globalization will lead to some businesses failing due to chang e magnitude competition more reason to support other firms which could be successful in the future. Also, globalization may not be such a bad thing economically. Yes, a country is at risk with its businesses automatic to relocate to the country that suits them best, but global competition means more emphasis on firms to become competitive. This can lead to more jobs and more growth in the domestic economy. The advancement of globalization has led to a decrease in the influence of government and go up a notch, the power of business in national economies.In conclusion, over the last thirty years, the relationship between government and economy has fluctuated many times. The policy and style of government, and other external crises and events have led to different styles in handling public sector economics. External events such as the financial crisis and globalization have brought up the debate of the free market and whether attempts to keep the government in the background will ev er be successful. Monopolies were the created of privatization, but deregulation was a creator of nationalization. This has seen a fine line having to be struck between the governments roles in the economy. Globalization has seen individual firms within an economy boost their status and influence, in turn, shutting out government power in their respective economies. Different parties have brought their respective philosophies into power in the UK. Enterprise, freedom of choice and increase competition in individual markets has been the driving force in approximately action taken by government during this period. In my opinion, it is fair to say, that the UK economy and the UK government have undergone structural, political and geographical change, which has led to Britain maintaining a choke hold in the battle of the developed and developing economies.
The Marxist Theories Of International Relations Politics EssayNothing to do with Marxism/Leninism as a State Ideology, although associated with it, and embarrassed by it. Marxism is a set of uninflected theories, that experience a renaissance today, because it appears clearly again, after the triumphalism of the 1990s, that Capitalism is in a constant crisis. In Latin America, in Asia, and even present in the USA, financial crises happen quite frequently. Also, even when capitalistic economy is working, it power non produce favourable out nonpluss for everybody. Globalisation is good for Ameri nookie companies, just right away not necessarily for the American blue collar worker.Strength of Marxism to actualise the role of the economy in politics and analyse why crises be part of it.In International Politics it investigates the role of world(a) capitalist economy in instauration politics. It is a surmise that is very disconcerting, for it demonstrates things that we usually dont necessitate to hear or know that our wealth in the West is underage upon the poverty and misery of the people in the other parts of the world. In Marxs words accumulation of wealth at one pole is, t presentfore, at the same time accumulation of misery, agony of t ve moderniseable oil, slavery, ignorance, brutality at the diametral pole.Hence, that1/5 of the worlds population is living in extreme poverty,30,000 children neglect every day from preventable diseases1 bn people dont fall in regain to clean waterIn 34 countries the life expectancy is now lower than it was in 1990is not a god- hand overn feature of our world, but to a significant extent caused by the way the global economy works. present we forget talk virtually four different theories that take rapture from Marxism. What do they open in common?Society and Politics argon a Totality. The division into History, Sociology, IR, Political Science, Economics and so on is mislead and problematic. Every issue, pro blem is part of this totality. Current example USA vs. Iraq what is pertinent? Military power, nuclear weapons, balance of power, regime type, culture, religion, economic involutions in oil and so on. So to isolate one of these point always misses that the prove is always a vast one and a complicated one.A materialist conception of history. History is driven by the tension between the government agency of production (labour, overlyls, technology, capital) and the transaction of production (the socio-economic conditions that prevail in a party Feudalism, Slaveholder society, Capitalism) Former transform and improve, straining against the latter during Feudalism, manufacturing needed more(prenominal) unornamented worker, undermining the bondage of peasants and the power of guilds. Slavery in 1865 was not single a moral depravity but also economically outdated. It is too in efficacious to compete with modern manufacturing in large scale. This tension will over time lead to the transformation of social relations the discharge of peasants in Europe, of slaves here in the USA, and so on. Also, the economic sector (means and relations of production) dominates the governmental, legal, and cultural system. This superstructure reflects and rein pull ups the way the economic sector, the base is run. We have a political system that supports and reinforces capitalist property, our laws protect property, our welf atomic number 18 states keep the people viable so they wont revolt or starve. Our culture facilitates the reaping of profits for large companies and corporations fashion, music, arts, entertainment, also education is guided towards profit maximisation of capital.Class is a central concept in every society there is part conflict. In capitalist society, there is the conflict between bourgeoisie and proletariat. A bit too simple perhaps today, but if you know what Enron did to its employees, you get an idea that the interest of the capitalist argon not always the interests of the workers or employees.Philosophers have tho interpreted the world in various ways, the point, however, is to transfer it. Emancipation and change were the goal for him to end capitalism and its exploitation of the workers, and to cause a more just society. This is still on the agenda, not to the lowest degree in global politics. human Systems Theory (Wallerstein)Based on insights that globalised capitalism is creating a core-periphery in the world, and that all economic interactions take place in spite of appearance a global context. The location of states in this system determines their behaviour and their interactions. paginate 207Core industrialised and modern parts of world economy. Periphery the put-upon part from which we receive cheap resources and raw material. Terms of trade ar deteriorating in the long run for Periphery raw material gets cheaper, make goods more expansive.Semi-Periphery plays an interesting part stabilizes capitalism in C ore by providing cheap labour and by taking up labour intense industries that move out of core.Temporal factorcyclical rhythms expansion and compaction stock market, trade, etcsecular trends over time moving up or d aver through cyclical rhythmscontradictions central part of capitalism crisis of underconsumption lay off workers makes profits rise, but then no-one buys stuff, so even more lay-offsCrisis of a whole world system, possibility for changeGramscianismProblem that Antonio Gramsci dealt with how deduct there is no revolution occurring in Western Europe? How can capitalism stabilize itself and make workers believe that Capitalism is also in their interest? Why is nobody really challenging it?Hegemony dominant political orientation distributed through society via media, culture, education, churches, etc (civil society). Its a soft form of power, complementing coercion. People are raised and socialized to accept no alternative to Capitalism, schools teach about its virtues , and everybody takes it for granted that we are a capitalist society. So the Superstructure (politics, culture, etc) feeds back and stabilizes the basis.In international politics, Robert Cox above all has used and developed these fascinate ideas about the relationship between material reality (economics) and ideological superstructure (politics and culture) in investigating the way this works in the international economy.Success of relax trade and neoliberalism all over the world needs to be explained How come everybody assumes that free trade is the solution to the economic problems of every country, when it so blatantly is not?As Cox points out, theory is always a theory for some one, and for some purpose. Its never neutral and objective, it always benefits some and does not benefit or oppresses others. Values about right and wrong are inherent and implicit in any theory.And the hegemonic ideology of neoliberalism does just that it benefits the interest of the rich and powerful in world economics.It opens up markets to their powerful and efficient companies.It makes resources and raw materials available for a cheap price, as it forces these countries to focus on those resources for income, and forces them into a competition with each other.It allows Western companies to snap up privatised companies in Third World countries at bargain prices.. Thus, by forcing the countries of the underdeveloped world into the free market economy, we do this above all to support our own interests. By claiming and spreading the news that there is no alternative to neoliberalism and free trade, we abolish alternatives for these countries. And if they still resist, ideology is enforced by international institutions. sideslip discussed in Box 10.3 is very good here.It should be noted in this context that those countries that successfully developed their economies since the 1950s in the Third World (South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, India) did so with a significant rol e for the state and protectionist policies. Education systems were crucial.If countries resist, the IMF refused to give them financial aid that they need to get out of debt.Also, further problem West itself does not take free trade all that seriously. OXFAM tale HERE.Marxism and GlobalisationThe growing integration of national economies, the increasing interdependence of societies, and the proliferation of global organisations and networks are in a sense nothing new to Marxism. They have been looking at these developments for the longest time Capitalism itself is the driving force behind it.Capitalism is expansive, and transformative. It constantly seeks new markets for its products, and it transforms the societies it reaches in this pursuit. Traditional societies that have survived through centuries are melted down and turned into modern capitalist societies with all the repercussions this has.And as economic developments and economic power will only increase in the future, these kind of theories will become more applicable than Realism and Liberalism. And as the globalising economy now produces more and more unenviable outcomes, not only in the Third World, but also here at home, we might also pay attention to the emancipatory aspect of Marxism and the psyche of transforming the global economy to make it fairer, and more just.
Saturday, March 30, 2019
Health Essays inveterate Disease ManagementChronic Disease ManagementChronic distempers wealthy person an effect on tout ensemble countries, and the augment in their prevalence is to a great extend attributed to change demographics, remedyd life expectancy, changing lifestyles, better distemper circumspection and forethought and a better understanding of the grammatical constituents that cause poor health and malady.Laboratory, clinical and creation- ground research has revealed that a few risk factors argon responsible for the prevalence of most inveterate disorders unhealthy diet and high energy ingestion, want of physical activity and use of tobacco. Alcohol intake, environmental pollutants, age and ancestral factors in any case play a role. These risk factors ar the same in men and women and across e truly regions in the world.The associated health c atomic number 18, financial and social agitate of degenerative diseases, which include diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, asthma, continuing obstructive air trend disease, hypertension, continuing depression, osteoporosis, end stage renal failure and stroke, are progressively on the increase.In the US al peer slight(prenominal) to be specific, whatsoever one hundred twenty-five million passel now plump for from at least one continuing disease.Chronic diseases are a dire burden to individuals and to countries and the unattached traditional health trade methods are non able to meet the requirements for pr as yetting and bring down this burden. It is because of this problem that continuing disease charge has emerged as a parvenue approach towards caring for patients with chronic diseases.Chronic disease charge in clinical circles nates be defined as an elaborate, systematic, multicomponent strategy to delivering healthcare while involving all members in the population or community who gather from similar infections.Cardiovascular disease is chronic and is the firstborn cause of remnant among the elderly in all countries. This observable fact was evident even 60 stratums ago, as Roberts noted that diseases of the circulatory system and pneumonia were the first causes of death among the aged in Jamaica in 1950.These diseases are to about tip the sequelae of advancing age. As life expectancies are increasing the prevalence of all noncommunicable disease is also increasing. Thus, one could adopt the approach that these are an foreseeable consequence of ageing and the focus on that pointfore has to be on simply treating them when they do occur and applying the acknowledged interventions for secondary prevention once the first disease episode has occurred.It is possible to scale down the mortality from chronic diseases in general. slightly of the developed countries such as Canada, Australia and the fall in States develop succeeded in reducing mortality by applying preventive measures.Meeting the motley unavoidablenesss of patients with chronic diseases is the single supreme contest facing our healthcare system in most countries today.With the increasing flecks of patients execrable from chronic diseases, it is of the essence that clinicians, healthcare administrators and health policy makers jut and ensure that the healthcare tar system is tailored to provide care for these patients across the tie of their healthcare needs.Chronic disease guidance has been known to be the topper and most comprehensive approach for providing holistic and comprehensive care for patients with chronic illnesses.The Kaiser Permanente care triangle has frequently been used to conceptualizeChronic disease care at three main levelsSupporting self-importance-care for patients suffering from chronic disease who are at low risk of complications and hospitalization.Disease attention for people who are in need of regular routine followup and are at high risk of chronic disease.Case management for people who live with complex needs and those who are high-intensity users of unplanned less authorized care.Managing chronic diseases at the system level has been the focus of legion(predicate) latest publications.1-4 In the US, the recent Institute of Medicine Report fording the Quality Chasm focused on the need to reorganize care delivery to meet the healthcare demands of populations of patients who suffer from chronic illnesses.In October 2001, the British aesculapian Journal and the Western Journal of Medicine both published exceptional rationalizes focusing on the problem of chronic diseases and tinted how various nations are traffic with this ever rising epidemic.It is therefore agely that all nations focuses on approach up with a better program to address the needs of patients with chronic disease, on the advancesin clinical and non-pharmacological management, and the challenges faced in ensuring that patients receive optimal care meeting the needs at the various stages of their disease.Progr amme for chronic disease managementA successful chronic disease management program should be designed while considering fundamental factors that are tiny to its sustainability.First of all the program should be aimed at a veritable specific condition within the population suffering. Then the nest important factor concerns the availability of evidence on which its functions should be base.A capacious-cut program has to keep in its consideration the existence of obstacles which may be a hindrance to its successful implementation.Adequate measures should be get in check to ensure that there is a balance between musical note and the economical of the objectives of the care to be take a crapnUnited States In the United States chronic disease management programs, also known as chronic care management, have become extensive. They are being favored by employer groups, health-care organizations and health payers, these programs are being increasingly raising concern because very lit tle scientific evidence is available to justify their effectiveness and economic impact.Disease management was introduced and launched in 1990 by drug companies for the purpose of share patients to comply with various medications and also to increase their sales.This programs have developed in the orphic sector to become such a competitive intentness that these companies contract health plans to offer comprehensive care to various groups. They are then paid a fee by the health plans to indorsement a saving.Disease management programs are wide in the private sector they offer care and condense as part of benefits and strengthener from physicians.Some programs have been organized in such a way that the physician behind receive alerts whenever the patient needs medical help or even when the services for preventing chronic diseases are long overdue.Some use professional clinical selective information systems which can integrate participants data for instance data which concern s claims data or self reports. This can be even acquired from multiples sources.However there is only a small number of beneficiaries who suffer from chronic illness and therefore news report for the unproportionate share of medical expenditure.This results in such patients receiving fragmented care from a number of site providers and to add on the insult they receive repeated and costly hospitalization.The manifestation project was endorsed by the Medicare, Medicaid,and SCHIP Benefits Improvement and Protection fleck of 2000 (BIPA).In adding together to the BIPA projects, there arenumerous of other coordinated care demonstrations approvedby recounting in the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, a capitatedDM demonstration latterly initiated by the Bush administration,and an end-stage renal disease management demonstration.People are demandingto figure out ways to do disease management in the public sector that act in responseto patient-privacy concerns and that admiration the tradition alrole of the physician.Disease management programs have no effect on the state budget as they pay for administrative services while they are guaranteed by the administration a savings offset in form of claims reduction.It is important to pinnacle out that even though the opportunities for cost savings and step up inhealth outcomes is great, the challenges of introducing disease management onwide scale in the Medicare program are importantThe patients increasing population is likely to bring up challenges which are not found in the private sector.FranceIn France studies have shown a tremendous improvement in the state of health and quality of life for chronic illness patients. at that place has also been significant reduction in be due to the implementation of coordinated mesh topologys for the treatment of asthma.The reduction in cost cannot be attributed to spontaneous national changes in management but instead it can be explained by the effect of the intervention program.T his initiative can be said to be the first attempt towards implementation ofa disease management program in France.Italy In Italy the health system is aiming at utilizing Information technology tools to manage chronic diseases.In this country the population f over 65 years has be noted to be on the rise. What is worrying is that the number of chronic diseases also increases with this range of age. rough 90% of the aged people are suffering form chronic diseases and something has to be done in effect to prevent further repercussions.In the past Italian doctors have raised concern over the time that is used in treating patients with chronic diseases and therefore cam up with a block to use community care which such a program there is a shift from hospital based care to community based care. Such a program aims at reducing on the number of patients admitted with chronic diseases, removes patients out of hospital quicker and improving on the network for service of process people with chronic diseases.This is to be done while the records are kept centrally and monitored while the services are moved to the community.In Italy there is also another program being put in place and it is called sole project as it is aiming at networking all hospitals with communities to give the citizens services.The program is also aiming at controlling flow of information so as to help the elderly patients.The idea must have been copied from the UKs pathways to telecare.GermanyIn German two laws were passed in the year 2001 to address the main problems in the healthcare system.Despite advance which have been made in diagnosis and treatment of diabetes, patients still experience secondary complications,The purpose of disease management program in Germany is to avoid repetition of diagnostic testing, by specialists or in hospitals thus processing in containing the cost.In Germany chronic diseases management programs have a legal basis under which they operate. For instance in the yea r 2002 there was a reform law which laid down a complicated procedure for the establishment and implementation of disease management programs. These procedures include the characteristic features of a disease which qualifies to be included in the management programs.Implementation of disease management programs in Germany has been influenced by politics which is not like in the other countries. Germany has a longer experience with disease management programmes than the United States.The healthcare system in Germany has characteristics which have seen the universe of disease management programs. This includes the free choice of the non-profit sickness funds who have to strike a balance between spending and income. There are also issues regarding to efficiency and quality on the side of those who are inveterate sickThe ministry of health in Germany anticipated that disease management programs go away help to reorganize the fragment care for people suffering from chronic illnesses.Th e main challenge towards implementation of the programs regards to the defining of the minimum standards proves to be argumentative and time consuming as people continue to suffer.Another challenge has been on implementing the program for Diabetes whose care requirements has been attacked by more than ten scientific societies. These scientists argue that the government and the sickness funds favored a marginal program which was created basing on studies with the highest level of evidence. Some claim that the programs were created under natural time pressure. (R. Busse 2001)By way of the German-style DM programs the government anticipated a radicalGordian explanation to a knot of disheveled problems. While theauthentic experience with DM programs is by a long way larger and longerin the United States than in Germany, the German strategy couldbe of interest in the United States, where we have slash skimming andadverse selection having in fact blocked managed care infiltrationinto the Medicare population. unmatched observable difference is theownership of the DM programs in the United States they are to some extent connected with pharmaceutical companies or special DMP vendors. Whendisease management came up in Germany, analogous companies appearedon the market, with the hope for commercial triumph. Some sicknessfunds contracted them to assist them in preparing DM programs, but suchcompanies have more or less disappeared from the marketThe UKAccording to statistics in the U K lack of fitting care to manage chronic diseases on a day today basis can lead to unnecessary complications and premature death.Children also suffer from chronic diseases for instance children below five years account for 15% of the cases(General household survey 2002)Self care has sometimes been ignored in the UK but it is a well proven approach to improving the military position of chronic diseases.According to data from the Department of Healths economical and Operational Research t he effects of self care include cut down to visits to GP Sby over 40% for the high risk cases.Reduction in admissions to hospitals by about 50% in a Parkinsons diseasesThe distance of stay in hospitals for mental health problems reduce.Off work eld can reduce by even more than 50% for patients suffering from arthritisSelf care or management is not just an issue of providing information to the patients but it involves a range of other things to make it workable.Patients need care education regarding to self management of their sickness by helping stand what they ought to do and how to make adjustments towards their medical dosage and how and when they need healthcare.They also need quick reminders of when they should be attending to certain measures concerning their health.They need support from knowledgeable patients or even an expert in their disease and broader networks which can include attending to group practices involving the same kind of health condition.Their s uncertainty as regarding to self care however it is likely to improve in relevance because of the followingThe increase of information that is availed to the patients.The ability of information technology to support self care.The possibility of having reliable and accurate fundament monitoring systems.The greater anticipation by many patients to be the locale of control.In the UK the main providers of care for chronic diseases are the primary care teams. They include community nurses, pharmacists, dieticians, opticians, podiatrists, and physiotherapists.Barriers for implementing disease management programsOne major factor which hinders the implementation of these programs is the lack of proven after investment. This has tended to limit the health plan and interest of the disease management organization.Future of Disease management programsThere is no acceptable best way to chronic disease management. read that has been observed throughout the world brings out clearly that, to be successful , policy-makers should put into considerationProviding well-built leadership and vision at the national, regional or organisational level which should oversee all that is required for the programs to succeed.They should ensure full-bodied prayer of information and data-sharing among all the stakeholders in the health sector.Care should be provided based on peoples needs and an ability to identify people with different levels of needThey should also put in place measures that take key risk factors, including widespread disease prevention initiatives.Growing towards financial support self-management and empowerment of people with chronic diseasesPolicy brief should involving a wide range of stakeholders such as individuals, the voluntary and community sector, clinicians, private manufacture and public services.Future Disease management programs should be tailored to reduce the cost associated with care for people suffering from chronic illnesses. The growing costs of operations su ch as dialysis are still a major concern in most countries. But with the Disease management programs in place these costs are expected to decline and lead to improve care even through public health for chronic disease cases.However reducing the costs with DM programs has been successful in some areas but the drug treatment especially in diabetic cases seems to be an area where the growing costs are inevitable.
Friday, March 29, 2019
citric Acid to Remove Stains Experiment accentuate AND PURPOSE Knowledge most immanent whitenednedneres to remove shite whitethorn be reclaimable in our daily life. Natural bleaches thr genius be launch in respective(a) emblems of harvest- metres succus and many early(a)(prenominal) an(prenominal) to a greater extent. This green bleaches be more than fri suppressly to environment and cheaper than commercial harvest- time. Citric panelling is onlyness of bleaching agent that screw be found in the citrus yield proceedss such as so-and-so. This paper provide discuss on the process of removing markers by citric pointulent in divergent reference of return juices. The investigation was foc utilise on How does the flake of citrus issues use change the pose of re attain of soft touch extractible? Since befouls make antithetical slips, the effectiveness of citric acrimonious on two symbolfaces of obscenitys (synthetic and vegetable estab lish stain) had been discussed more in this investigation.MATERIALS AND METHODS The investigate was conducted with polar type of fruits lemon, linden, belly button o runness and pineapple. The time interpreted for the different type of stain to be removed by different type of fruits had been recorded and be analyzed to reveal the approximately trump apply as inherent bleaches.RESULTS Even though the lemon juice is more generally turn inn as natural bleach unless(prenominal) establish on the try, the best used citrus fruit as bleaching agent is calcium hydrate and the citric blistering is most effective used to remove vegetable establish stain.Table of Contents (Jump to)Introduction1.0 Bleaches1.1 interpersonal chemistry in Bleach1.2 chemical mechanism of Bleaching1.3 precept of development1.4 moment of Study1.5 Limitation of Study1.6 Research forefrontHypothesis changeables3.0 Apparatus and Materials4.0 single- nursed function and Analysis4.1 Extraction of jui ces from citrus fruits4.2 Citric acid determination4.3 affair for stain removableConclusion EvaluationINTRODUCTIONBleachesBleaches used intercontinental in household to remove or decolor stains which whiten or lighten the color of frame cookes. Chemically, bleaches pass on breaks the stain blood cells into smaller molecule that good be removed. D. no.mia Souza (2008) stated that bleaches atomic takings 18 chemical that capable to whitening the fabrics and removing stains by destroying tinting matter. T here ar two types of reaction that involve in bleaching. Comm and bleaching process involves in oxidation processes such as total heat peroxide and some involve the reduction processes such as atomic number 11 chlorite. until now in bleaching processes, the oxidation and reduction as well ignore add up simultaneously. Bleaching process for stains most effective when some(prenominal) an oxidative and a subtr diligent bleaching steps worked together and this referr ed as full bleaching (J.M. Cardam ane W.N. Marker, 1995) There are various types of bleaches, and each type of bleach is specifically used for certain type of fabrics. The fabrics are very specific and if used with wrong bleach, the fabric pass on wear out. tautness, pH, time and temperature are the various designers which are affect the action of bleach on fabrics.Chemistry of Bleach total heat peroxide is the most prominent bleach and usually used in commercial bleaches. However, fit in to D.Noemia Souza (2008), the strongest bleach is atomic number 11 hypochlorite slice the weakest is atomic number 11 chlo run and the hydrogen peroxide is milder. atomic number 11 hypochlorite(Chlorine- demanding oxidants)Usually, the atomic number 11 hypochlorite allow for contain 15-18% of chlorine (D.Noemia Souza, 2008). Under certain full term, the asc lastent go away decompose into atomic number 11 chlorite (eq1) which then reacts with hypochlorite and produce the atomic number 11 chlorate (eq2). The atomic number 11 hypochlorite will beneathgoes further reaction to thaw oxygen (eq3). Thus it is categorise as chlorine bleach2NaOCl NaCl + NaClO2 (1)NaOCl +NaClO2 NaCl+NaClO3. (2)Overall equation3 NaOCl 2NaCl+NaClO3 (3)2NaOCl 2NaCl+O2 (4)Hydrogen peroxide(preoxygen bleach)Hydrogen peroxide bleaching will dissociates into H+ and per hydroxyl ions HOO-(eq1).The per hydroxyl ions is the active bleaching agent. Under alkaline conditions it will release oxygen (eq2).Cotton would damage low this conditions as the bleaching effect is slow and the bleaching rate is fast. The activator and stabilizers are added to control this condition (J.M. Cardamone W.N. Marker, 1995). water supply2 HO2- + H+.. (1)2 water supply2 2 piss +O2 (2)Hydrogen peroxide is a universal bleaching and D.Noemia Souza (2008) said it is the only oxidizing bleach that can be safely used on protein.Mechanism of Bleachingestablish on ProcterGamble (2005) the process of bleaching is shared ou t into two, which areBreaking up the stainThe stain consist of molecule chains covering the fabricsThe bleach molecule will break the stains into smaller pieces by and by that process, bleach molecule will disappearThe stain is now broken into smaller pieces which can be easily removed by the surfactantDecolorizing the stainsThe stains color has its fount in the double-bond connectionsThen, the bleach will break up the bond and exchange it into single bond, eliminating its ability to absorb visible light.After that, the bleach molecules will disappear.Once the double-bond connections are broken up, the stains isnt visible anymore.Citric Acid as Natural BleachCitric acid is weak organic acid and one of the acids found in citrus fruits such as lime and lemon. It popularly used in food industrial as perservative. It overly can act as natural bleaching agent and an antioxidant. So it is useful in our daily life to remove stain or tinkers dam from fabric and bleach the spot. Citric a cid exist in many type of vegetables and fruits still more concentrated in lime and juice where the ironic weight of citric acid in fruit comprimise as much as 8 percent (sciencedaily.com).The denseness of cotric acid in fruits range from 0.005 mol/L for oranges to 0.30 mol/L in lemons and limes (Wiki.Org)Rationale of the StudyNowadays, most of people prefer to use biodegradable product or green product. Especially in current downturn economy, many people change to less expensive products. Using citrus fruits as an alternative ways to remove stain is the good choice. The misgiving that arises here is what the significance of knowing which of the citrus fruits is best used in removing stains?Significance of the Study atomic number 11 hypochlorite (chlorine bleach) and hydrogen peroxide (oxygen bleach) are extremely popular in the market to whiten the fabrics and in stain removable. However, there are some dis goods exploitation oxygen and chlorine bleaches. Most of them are pre carious if ingested or inhaled and should be used with care. Lindsay Evans (2009) also explained the chlorine can character negative health effects. Besides, they are costly and give a knotty impact to our environment especially rivers and lakes ecosystem. Chlorine that flowing into rivers or lakes will combine with other chemical to form a stable coalesce where it will remain unchanged in groundwater for many years (Wisconsin, 2010). On the other hand, citric acid best uses as natural bleaches because it does less harm to ecology of rivers and lake.Limitation of the fieldAll of the try out will conduct in the Mara College Serembans laboratory. Most of the fabric such as citrus fruits lemon, lime, navel oranges and pineapple and table table salt are obtained from crossway Cheras in Cheras, Selangor, Malaysia. So, all of the fruits are not in the same take aim of freshness due to different condition during storage that may affect the freshness of the fruits. Besides that, th e fruits might not pass from same guide and this will affect the assimilation of acid in the fruits.Research QuestionThe focus of study is to investigate the ability of citrus fruits as natural bleach to remove stain from fabric. The main objective of this study is to identify which of the citrus fruits lime, lemon, pineapple, and navel oranges is best used as bleaching agent.So the look question of the study is How does the different type of citrus fruit used lime, lemon, pineapple, and navel oranges affect the rate of reaction of stain removable?The study uses 4 different types of citrus fruits which are lime, lemon, pineapple, and navel oranges that will excerpt into juice and add with table salt (sodium chloride).HypothesisThe research question of the study is How does the type of citrus fruits used affect the rate of reaction of stain removable? The rate of reaction of stain removable is the highest at the most acidic root. So the venture is the most acidic fruit in this case is lime or lemon as both contains high denseness of citric acid.VariablesIndependent VariableThere are two independent variables in this experiment as the experiment is change integrity into several(prenominal) parts. The first independent variable is the different types of citrus fruit juices lemon, navel orange, lime and pineapple. While the second independent variable is the different type of stains where synthetic stain (syrup) and vegetable stain(tomatoes) are used end-to-end the experiment.Dependent VariableRate of reaction to remove the stain from fabric will be the dependent variable. The time interpreted will be record by stopwatch for the stain to decolorize. Then by development the graph the gradient is determine which represent the rate of reaction.Fixed VariableThe fixed variables are type of cloth (cotton), lot of juice (5oml), temperature ( snowc) and wad ( blowml) of water bath and quantity of sodium hydroxide (3 teaspoon). All of this square will be use in same quantity passim of the experiment.Apparatus and MaterialsMaterialQuantityFruit juices (lemon, lime, navel oranges, and pineapples)50 cm3 blow c of water bath100 cm3PhenolphthaleinDistilled water40 mlTable salt1.0M of NaOH resolventDried KHP3 teaspoon10 cm31.0 g4.0 Procedure and AnalysisPreparation of an approximately 0.1 M Sodium Hydroxide Solution followed by the Standardization of the Sodium Hydroxide forward testing the concentration of citric acid, the standard sodium hydroxide solvent take to be shitd. In rig to prepare 0.1 M of NaOH, 9.0 cm3 of 1.0M sodium hydroxide resolving power was diluted with 100.00cm3 of distilled water. Then the sodium hydroxide root word was standardizing to determine its concentration by titrated it with KHP. This acid base reaction is shown in Equation 1(M.L.Gillette, 1999)KHP(aq) + NaOH (aq) NaKP(aq) + H2O(l)(eq1)Two portion of 0.5g of dried potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) was weighed and turn with 50ml distilled water in coni cal flask. The Phenolphthalein ancestor was added for 2-3 drops into KHP etymon to betoken the end point of titration. Phenolphthalein was used because the pH range of product is 8-10 .The sodium hydroxide was titrated with KHP solution until pale pink color was produced. The volume of NaOH solution added was recorded.selective information ingathering for Standardization of NaOHNumber of trials1sttrial2ndtrialInitial Burette reading/cm3 (0.05cm3)0.000.00 nett Burette reading/cm3 (0.05cm3)23.5025.40Volume NaOH solution added/cm3 (0.05cm3)23.5025.40ObservationAfter hardly a(prenominal) excellents, the clear solution turned into pale pink forwards disappeared.After few minutes, the clear solution turned into pale pink out front disappeared.Table 4.0Data AnalysisThe purpose to standardize sodium hydroxide solution against potassium hydrogen phthalate is to determine the exact comfort of sodium hydroxide concentration. By titrate the 0.1M of sodium hydroxide solution against KH P solution the results collected are more accurate. The concentration of sodium hydroxide was found to be 0.1002MCalculation for determining the concentration of the sodium hydroxideKHP (aq) + NaOH (aq) NaKP(aq) + H2OTo calculate the number of mole of KHPNumber of mole= mass/ poor boy mass= 0.5g KHP/ 204.2= 2.449-10-3mol KHPTo calculate the number of mole of NaOH required to neutralized KHP solutionNo. of moles of NaOH = No. of moles of KHP= 2.449-10-3mol NaOHTo calculate grand of NaOH solutionConcentration of NaOH = (number of moles/ volume of NaOH)-1000= (2.449-10-3/ 24.45) -1000 = 0.1002MPercentage uncertainty of the concentration of the 0.1M of sodium hydroxide% doubt of Concentration of 0.1M NaOH = Volume(H2O) + Volume(NaOH)+ Concentration of NaOH(1.0M)% Uncertainty of VH2o = 0.04/100.00 - 100= 0.040%% Uncertainty of VNaOH = 0.05/9 - 100= 0.600%% Uncertainty of CNaOH = 0.040+ 0.600=0.64%Extraction of juices from citrus fruits.The lemon was cut into small pieces and blend with blender. The juice released was putted into the beaker and labeled with A. First step was repeated again until half of the beaker filled. Then, the extracted juice was filtered through muslin cloth. The whole procedure were used again with another type of fruits, lime, navel orange and pineapple and labeled withBeaker image of juiceALemonB lime hydrateCNavel orangeDPineappleCitric Acid DeterminationThe reason of citric acid determination is because to know the exact value of citric acid in juices for info analysis. This process is carried out by adding NaOH into the fruit juices. The approximately 10 mL of lime juice was prepared by victimisation pipette and transferred into a conical flask. Then, the lime juice was diluted with 20ml of distilled water and three drops of phenolphthalein was added into solution. The solution with 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was added from burette to the juice sample while swirling the mixture until the reaction mixture turned into snuff it pin k color. The end point was reached when the pink color persists for thirty seconds. The volume of NaOH added was recorded. The processes were repeated again to emergence the accuracy. Then, the procedure was repeated with different type of juice lemon, orange and pineapple. By apply the formula, the molarity of citric acid in the fruit juice was calculate.Data Collection for citric acid Determination oddball of juiceLemonNumber of trials1sttrial2ndtrial3rdtrialVolume of juice pipette/(0.5)ml101010Final burette27.649.676.1Initial burette027.649.6Volume of NaOH (0.1)mL27.622.026.5Average Volume of NaOH23.98Qualitative DataThe colour of solution in conical flask change from white colour to kick the bucket pink colour.Data Analysis- computing for determining the citric acid concentration through sodium hydroxide added.The citric fruits consist of citric acid. Citric acid contains carboxyl acid group and reacts with hydroxide ion as indicate in equation 2 (Dr. Ewa doubting Thomas, 2 007). The sodium hydroxide will ionise to form sodium ions and hydroxide ions (eq 1).NaOH (s) Na+ (aq) + OH (aq) (eq 1)C3H5O (COOH)3 (aq) + 3 OH- (aq) C3H5O(COO)33- (aq) + 3 H2O (l) (eq 2)The purpose of this experiment is to determine the concentration of citric acid on the citrus fruit by titrating the citrus juice with standard sodium hydroxide solution. The concentration of citric acid can be metric by measuring the volume of sodium hydroxide used (eq 3).Molarity,M= (eq 3)M1V1 = M2V2 (eq 4)establish on the equation, the molarity of the OH- ions equal with sodium hydroxide as the molecular ratio is 11. So, the molarity of hydroxide ions can be known. By using equation 4, the concentration of citric acid can be determined. calculate the concentration of citric acidBy using the information given above, I had reason the concentration of citric acid in citrus juices. The citric acid C6H8O7 is a triple basic acid that consists of three carboxylic acids and react with one hydroxid e ion ,eq 1(Ewa Peter Thomas M Moffet, 2007). In this experiment, I fictional that the citric acid is fix acid found in the citrus fruits.C3H5O(COOH)3 (aq) + 3 OH- (aq) C3H5O(COO)3 (aq) + 3 H2O (l).(eq 1)However, according to experiment conducted by Law.C Solak.E(2009) the citric acid does not ever so have the 3 carboxylic acid. So, in this experiment I will assume that the citric acids only have 1 carboxylic acids but its less accurate. The following reaction takes place in the titrationC6H8O7 + OH- H2O + C6H7O7- (eq 2)Based on the equation(eq 2), the molarity of the OH- ions equal with C6H8O7 as the molecular ratio is 11. By using equation below, the concentration of citric acid can be determined.M1V1 = M2V2where m1 = molarity of Sodium hydroxide, NaOHv1 = volume of Sodium hydroxide Solution, NaOHm2 = molarity of dilute citric acids, C6H8O7v2 = volume of dilute citric acids Solution, C6H8O7Example of calculation By Using the volume of NaOH use to titrate lemon juice0.1M NaOH - 23.98 ml = M2 - 10 ml 0f C6H8O72.298 mmol OH- = M2 - 10 ml C6H8O7M2 = = 0.2398 mole/L C6H8O7(The calculations showed above are applied to all other experiment, table 5.5)Calculating UncertaintiesPercentage uncertainty of Concentration = (n / n) + (Volume / Volume) x 100%ExamplePercentage uncertainty of concentration for Lemon== 6% arbitrary uncertainty of concentration = Percentage uncertainty x Concentration / 100%Example for Lemon = 6% -0.24/100%= 0.014 moldm-3 0.01 moldm-Data PresentationType of juiceAverage NaOH used(0.1)mLConcentration of citric acid (mol/L)Lemon23.980.2398Lime10.780.1078Navel Oranges5.350.0535Pineapples2.950.0295Table 4.6Procedure for process of stain removableThe white cloth cotton was cut into3cm-3cm coat of it for 20 pieces and each pieces of cloth were stain with syrup solution. Then the stained clothes were dried for about 1 hour. 20 cm3 of lime juice was prepared and the initial pH of juice was recorded by using pH meter. For the first trial, a stai ned cloth was held under the running water and was soaked in the lime solution for more than 30 minutes. After that, the stained cloth was put into100c hottish water bath and the time taken for the stained decolorize was recorded. However, the stained excessivelyk longer time to decolorize where the average of time taken cannot be recorded. So I used another method by adding 3 teaspoon of table salt (sodium chloride) into lime juice. The pH value of juice was recorded. The stained cloth was rubbed with salt before soaked into the solution for an hour. Then, the stained cloth was putted into 100C hot water bath and the time taken for the stained decolorized was recorded. In order to identify the best fruit best use to remove the stain, the whole step was repeated again with another type of fruits lemon, navel orange, and pineapple. The results from different type of fruits were compared.Besides that, I also used the different type of stain to test which one is more effective been bleached by citric acid. In this experiment I used vegetable found stain which is tomato stain. The first method is used without adding the table salt (sodium chloride) and the result was recorded and be compared with synthetic stain (syrup).Data Collection for Removable of stainQualitative dataFor synthetic stainThe pinks colour of stain turns into colourless.Fabrics receive whiteFabric cloths smell fruity.The juices become more slippery when added with sodium chloride.For organic stainThe red colour of tomatoes decolorizeThe fabric colour turn into redishThe fabric turns white after held under running water.Data AnalysisAccording to the data collected, the different type of fruits and different type of stain will affect the time taken for the stain to decolorize. For the syrup stain, there essential be influenced by sodium chloride ( cooking salt) as it is hard to remove by citric acid alone. Adding the cooking salt involved the osmosis concept where the solution will become mo re saturated, the water will moving from the cloth to the salt and taking the stain together (T. Lister J. Renshaw, 2000). When the cooking salt is added into the juice, the pH of juices drop and become more acidic. However, chemically the cooking salt does not affect the acidity of citric acid. The drop in pH value may be due the presence of water in the juices which react with the salt and release the hydrogen ions which might cause this to be happened. The reason putting stained cloth into the hot water is to increase the reaction by increase the movement of particle and reduce the time taken to remove the stain (Kenneth M.S, 1942). The highest rate of reaction (Table 4.9) calculated is lime juice and the lowest rate of reaction is pineapple juice. The reaction for both juices can be associate with its pH and concentration. In term of concentration of citric acid, the higher the concentration of citric acid will increase the acidity of juice and the time taken for stain removab le will become faster. However, this might not be true for lemon juices. Even though, it has highest citric acid concentration but the time taken for stain removable is not the fastest. This believably because of fallacy and limitation occurred and will be discussed more in other section.Meanwhile, graph 4.4 shows the rate of reaction of stain removable for both type of stain by using Microsoft Excel. It is show that the rate of reaction for removable stain in tomatoes stain is 0.154, higher than syrup stain. This is might be because the syrup stain is more thick and viscous. While the vegetable based stained (tomatoes) is easier to remove because it is organic in nature and more oil-soluble in lemon juice.8.0 Conclusion and EvaluationConclusionThe experiments showed that the type of citrus fruits used does affect the average time taken to remove the stain. The hypothesis that rate of reaction would be highest in the most acidic fruit (lime) which consist high concentration of ci tric acid, is also back up based on the data collected. The pH of lime is 2.2 most acidic among the others citrus fruits. The main objective of this essay is to identify which of the type of citrus fruits lime, lemon, pineapple, and navel oranges are best used as bleaching agent. As mention above, the type of citrus fruit does affect the rate of reaction to remove the stain. However, it also depends on the type of stain. Test on fabric with synthetic stain without adding sodium chloride (salt) required a long time where the average time taken cannot be collected. Meanwhile, citrus fruits are best used on fabric with vegetable based stain as there in no influence with sodium chloride. It can be said that the sodium chloride act as catalyst and making the removable of stain easier. In addition, the time taken to remove the stain for vegetable based stain is fastest compare than synthetic stain. The hot temperature was used in the experiment to speed up the reaction. Thus it can be co ncluded that, the lime is the best used as bleaching agent but with certain condition type of stain and temperature.EvaluationSome error and limitation occurring during the experiment which causes the result collected imprecise. The limitation and errors in these experiments can be divided into several parts. For the first part is problem in procedure A. Initially, the sodium hydroxide prepared had been assumed exactly 1.00M. However, to test the accuracy of the concentration, the sodium hydroxide had been standardized using KHP solution. After calculating the concentration of the sodium hydroxide, the concentration of sodium hydroxide is approximately 0.1M with 0.2% of percentage error.There is a limitation occur when calculating the concentration of citric acid by titrate it with sodium hydroxide solution. One problem is the citrus fruits contain several type of acid. So, in the experiment the citric acid had been assumed as sole acid in citrus fruits and be supported by Dr. Ewa T homas. As a result, the amounts of citric acid concentrations calculated are inaccurate and larger than theoretical value. The citric acid should been standardized to know the exact concentration, where it reduce the uncertainties. Besides that, some common mistake occurred in the experiment such as improper position of burette and parallax error in taking the measurement. To cross this, there is no other solution except reduce the parallax error by positioning the eyes bang-up to the scale reading needed and position the apparatus used at the smooth surface. muchover, it was hard to determine that the colour of the solution turned to faint pink colour because if the titration of NaOH was titrated without care the solution will become too red. So the result of the first faint pink colour come out should be detect and detected properly so it needs a particular partner in doing that job.Based on data collected, there is error between the concentration of citric acid and pH value f or lemon juices where supposedly the pH of lemon juice should be most acidic as it has highest citric acid concentration. The problem may arise in determining the citric acid concentration where the value of citric acid calculated in lemon juice was incorrect. Because of the lemon used are in different freshness (as mention earliest in limitation of study), it might affect the result. So, the same lemon must be use throughout the experiment.In the last part (procedure D), one of the error occurs is during taking the average time taken to remove the stain from fabric. When the stained fabric is place into hot water, it is difficult to identify whether the cloth decolorize or not because it is possible for fabric to turn into white without be rub. To improve this, the experiment must be repeated for several times to increase the accuracy. There is also a limitation where the removable of stain cannot be seen clearly when test conducted with coffee at first. So, to overcome this probl em, the stain was changed into syrup which the red colour can be seen clearly. However the problem had comes when there is change in pH value of fruit juice after adding with NaCl due to presence f water. This might be because limitation that occurred during extraction of juice. So, it is necessary to ensure all the equipment to rinse and dry first before conducting any experiment.Recommendation for further researchMore work could be through on the use of sodium chloride (cooking salt) in removing stain is it effective used and how it will increase the effectiveness of citric acid in removing stain? The other use of citric acid beside remove stain should be investigated as if citric has potential in other cleaning process. Besides that, while the experiment was done by using citrus fruits as natural bleaching agent other natural bleaching agent should be considered. Investigation on the effectiveness of citric acid by comparing it with the commercial bleaches and color safer bleache s has applications in our daily life.CdS Quantum dots tax deduction and Optical PropertiesCdS Quantum dots Synthesis and Optical PropertiesCdS Quantum dots Synthesis and Optical Properties word-painting for solar CellRaimy RoyAbstract In this work CdS quantum dots were synthesized using Successive noggin Layer surface assimilation and Reaction (SILAR) method. Then a study of the geomorphology and opthalmic property were made for the application of solar cell. The structural painting were made by XRD while the optical characterization where done by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy techniques.Index TermsQuantum dots, SILARI. INTRODUCTIONQuantum dot sensitized solar cell is an emerging field of photovoltaic in which the absorbing material is a quantum dot. The advantage of using such solar cell is size tunability and increased surface to volume ratio.In a quantum dot based solar cell the active work consist of the quantum dot and the dispersion layer is formed by the TiO2 layer. The me soscopic TiO2 when set uped with CdS quantum dot act as an talent harvester and convert the incident photon to electricity. In this work, a model of the photoanode for the solar cell was made with mesoscopic TiO2 layer as scattering layer and quantum dots as absorbing layer. Here instead of ITO a starter in slide was used. 1To synthesize a quantum dot various techniques are used. Among them Successive Ionic Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method is a cost effective and is used to prepare quantum dot. In a SILAR method the time of reaction or the number of cycle per seconds can be controlled. Depending on which the size of the quantum dot varies. Another advantage of this technique is that it can be prepared at room temperature. in any case this method provides a close contact between the quantum dots and the oxide layer, so it is an engaging method for the preparation of electrodes in a solar cell. 1Cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dot is a direct muckle gap semiconductor. It is a II-VI immix semiconductor that is used for many optoelectronic devices such as solar cell, optical maser diodes and photoconductors. It is an inorganic semiconductor which has several advantages over conventional dyes. These advantages are stria gap tunability, large extinction coefficient (this means that the dark current can be reduced and the overall efficiency can be improved) and duplex electron generation by utilizing hot electrons. 2II. EXPERIMENTAL SETUPChemicals mandatoryTitanium dioxide mill (SD Fine-Chem Limited, purity 60%), 2M nitric acid, 0.05M cadmium nitrate, ethanol, 0.05M sodium sulfide hydrate (Sigma Aldrich, assay=60%), methanol.Preparation of TiO2 layer on ice-skating rink slideA gap of titania (TiO2) was prepared from TiO2 powder and nitric acid. The chemicals were added in 21 proportion. A thin layer of titania paste was coated on the glass slide using a technique called doctor blade method 3. In this method, any a glass rod or a microscope slide is used. We have used a microscope slide of thickness 1.45mm to coat the paste. A glass slide of dimension 2cm X 1cm was cut and cleaned. With the help of an adhesive tape, the glass slide is positioned firmly on the work bench. Another advantage of using such tape is that we could define an area to coat the paste and to deposit the quantum dot. Now place the paste on one side of the glass slide, positioning the microscope slide in 45 spread the paste across the glass slide. Repeat the operation till a reasonably equivalent layer is formed. After coating heat the paste to 80C followed by annealing at 450C for 30 min. After sintering the paste is white in color. This provides a better surface for adsorption of the CdS quantum dots since sintering makes the mesoporous films to a continuous network.Deposition of CdS Quantum DotsSuccessive Ionic-Adsorption and Reaction method is commonly used to deposit metal sulphide onto a nanostructured film. CdS quantum dot was deposited onto tita nia using this method as described in 4. The first precursor solution used is 0.05M cadmium nitrate (Cd(NO3)2) and the second precursor solution is 0.05M sodium sulphide (Na2S). The bare TiO2 paste is dipped onto the first precursor solution for one minute. The Cd2+ ions have been deposited onto the TiO2 surface. This is then rinsed in an ethanolic solution for one minute and dried under room temperature. It is then dipped in the anionic precursor for one minute and then rinsed in methanolic solution for one minute and allowed to dry at room temperature. This completes one deposition cycle of SILAR. In this work we have performed four deposition cycles of SILAR.III. RESULT AND backchatThe CdS quantum dot was deposited on to the surface of TiO2. An obvious color change was observed during the deposition cycle which is shown in chassis.1. The color change was pale color to golden yellow. The characterization was done using XRD and UV-vis spectroscopy techniques. build 1 Photograph of glass slides with CdS coating with increasing SILAR cyclesXRD motion pictureFig 2. shows the obtained XRD conception for TiO2 (Fig.2a), TiO2/ CdS (Fig 2b.) . From the wind obtained, we confirm that CdS quantum dot was deposited onto the film. Since the peaks at 44.1, 51.9, 64.3, 70.4 and 72.9 coincides with the intensity pattern as defined by the JCPDS 10-0454 for the CdS QD. The corresponding miller indices are (220), (311), (400), (331) and (420). From this we conclude that CdS QD was deposited. It belongs to the box-shaped crystal system and the mineral name is hawleyite. For TiO2 the XRD pattern exactly matches with JCPDS 21-1272. It belongs to tetragonal crystal system and its mineral name is anatase.Fig.2 XRD pattern (a) TiO2 (b) TiO2/CdSSize CharacterizationThe size characterization was done by non-contact mode AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy). The size of the CdS quantum dot was found to be 25.83nm. the thickness of the deposited layer was calculated to be 29.65nm. Fig 3.Fig 3 AFM non-contact mode characterization of CdS quantum dotUV-vis CharacterizationThe optical property was characterized using Jasco Spectrophotometer V670. The submerging spectrum is shown in Fig 4. The dousing spectrum for the TiO2 and CdS/TiO2 is shown in Fig 4a. and TiO2/CdS alone is shown in Fig.4b. The submergence peak for CdS is as reported by Antonio et.al 4. From the preoccupation spectrum we could observe a shift in the peak indicating CdS QD is being deposited. The absorption peak was observed in the range of 386nm-484nm. For TiO2 the absorption peak was observed at 341nm. In Fig 4b. the stick in is the absorption spectrum that was reported in 5Fig 4 Absorption spectrum of (a) TiO2 and TiO2/CdS (b) TiO2/CdSFig 5 UV-Vis absorption spectra showing increase (49 %) in absorption due to CdSFigure 5. depicts the percentage increase in the absorption peak of CdS with respect to TiO2. It was calculated to be a 49.08% increase in the absorption peak.Determination of Op tical Band gapThe DRS (Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy) characterization was done to obtain the optical hardening gap. The optical band gap was calculated by plotting the Tauc plot . It is the plot between energy and absorbance. The optical band gap can be determined by Tauc relationWhere is the absorption coefficient in cm-1, h is the photon energy in eV and A is a constant. The value of n is given as followsn = for direct allowed changen = 2 for indirect allowed transitionThe Tauc plot for TiO2 and TiO2/CdS is shown in Fig 6. TiO2 is an indirect band gap material whereas CdS is a direct band gap semiconductor. The bandgap value of CdS in bulk is given as 2.42eV 5. From the experiment we calculated the optical band gap to be 2.38eV. Also the absorbance value of the CdS QD is blue shifted. Using the equationThe value of the peak was calculated to be 519.16nm which is within the absorption region.Fig 6. Tauc plot of (a) TiO2 (b)TiO2/CdSIV. CONCLUSIONIn this work CdS quantum dot have been synthesized using SILAR method. Its structural characterization was done that confirm the deposition of the CdS quantum dot on to TiO2 paste. The optical property was characterized and analysed using UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. The optical band gap was calculated to be 2.38 eV. The size of the quantum dot deposited was calculated to be in nanometer.REFERENCES1 Prashant V Kamat , Quantum dot Solar cells.The next double Thing in Photovoltaics J.Phys.Chem.Lett. 2013, 4, 908-918.2 Chang Liu,Yitan Li,Lin Wei,Cuncun Wu,Yanxue Chen,Liangmo MeiandJun Jiao, CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells based on nano-branched TiO2arrays Nanoscale Research letter 2014,9.3 A. Berni, M. Mennig, H. Schmidt, Doctor blade method, Springer.4 Antonio Braga,SixtoGimenez, Isabella Concina, Alberto Vomiero and Ivan Mora-Ser, Panchromatic Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Metal Sulfide Quantum Dots Grown Directly on Nanostructured TiO2 Electrodes, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2011, 2, 454460.5 B. T. Huy, Min-Ho S eo, Jae-Min Lim, Dong-Soo Shin and Yong-Ill Lee, A Systematic Study on Preparing CdS Quantum Dots Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 59, No. 5, November 2011, 3293-3299
abruptly And spacious Run Aggregate Supply carousal Economics attemptAggregate allow for is the total tag on of goods and work produced inside an preservation at a given everywhere overall price take within a specify time period. It is represented by the inwardness add frizz during a given time period that shows the total sum up of goods and services that the firms are willing to offer to the miserliness during a specified time period at a given overall price levels. Normally, there exists a positive relationship between the fuse provide level and the price levels upon which that annual translate twist has been made. Aggregate proviso subroutine of the parsimony is also referred to as total supply of the economy as shows the total supply of goods and services that the firms are willing to supply at given price levels. It also shows the power of the firms of the economy and the feature that the firms freighter supply the economy with the appropriate level of goods and services in order to satisfy the demands of the economy.Aggregate supply swerves are made on the basis of presbyopic and diddle term which depicts the total supply function of the firms of the economy both in the long term and in the short term for the economy. There bathroom be some shifts in the combine supply curve for the economy which can be attributed to phone number of various factors and variables affecting the economy. These factors can be many some of which may be the change in the surface and quality of roil, the mere fact that the labor size has changed that is more than and more labor is available to the firms for the toil of their goods and services or that the labor which is already available to the economy has gained more and more skills due to which it has become easier to produce more for the economy. Other factors can be the change in technology or it can be verbalize that the technological innovations can cause a shift in the center suppl y curve of the economy. Increase in profitss, increase in production costs, changes in producer taxes and subsidies, and changes in inflation can also be some of the driving factors in the shifting of the pile up supply curve for the economy.Different schools of thoughts have polar encounters of economics and so they have different approaches towards the determining of fuse supply of the economy that is to be made to the economy. Aggregates supply is the function of total availability of labor and other resources in the given time period and the price levels for the production of those goods and services that provide the aggregate supply of those goods and services to the economy.Short Run Aggregate Supply CurveSupply side of performance of the economy is the main determinant of the aggregate supply of the economy. Short barrage aggregate supply depicts the productive capacity of the economy and the costs of production of each sector.There may be a shift in the aggregate sup ply cure and this can be caused by the following factorsChanges made in the supply size and quality of labor force that are available to the economy.Changes in size and quality of capita stock through investment.Technological progress and the impact of innovation.Changes in the productivity of factors both labor and capital.Changes in the wage costs per unit of measurement .i.e. wage costs per unit of output.Changes in producer taxes and subsidies.Changes occurring to the inflation expectations. rotate in inflation expectations are likely to boost wage levels and in affect cause the aggregate supply curve towards the inwards shift.Long Run Aggregate SupplyLong run aggregate supply is determined by the productive resources available to meet demand and by the estimated productivity of factor inputs that are Land, Labor and capital.There is a view distinction between the short run and long run aggregate supply cures. In the short run aggregate supply curve is dependent on the price levels for a particular output and therefore increase in price levels affects the supply of goods and services in the economy whereas it is not true for long term aggregate supply as they are thought to be independent of price levels in the long term. The productive potential of the economy in the long run is in the main driven by the improvements to be made in the productivity levels and by the expansion of the available factor inputs. Expansion of the available factor inputs can be made through the realization of more firms, a big and much better capital stock and an increase in the number of skilled labor force etc. due to these reasons long run aggregate supply curve is made vertical on the graphs.The authorised model of economics set ups the aggregate supply curve as being a vertical line at the full employment level of real production.The early Keynesian view describes the aggregate supply curve to be a parallel curve to the horizontal axis .i.e. a horizontal curve. It s hows that the price level will remain same over the time period and the firms will have to manage their supply fit in to the available price level prevailing in the economy.The newer Keynesian view describes the aggregate supply curve in the two aspects .i.e. fixed money wage and variable money wage. According to the newer Keynesian view aggregate supply curve is the upward slopping curve at different wage levels for the economy.The supply side school of thought in the economics define the aggregate supply of the economy based on the fact that the aggregate supply is affected by the quality of labor and that the much higher(prenominal) prices are paid to the more skilled labor as compared to the little skilled or unskilled labor.
Thursday, March 28, 2019
In life everyone tries to distinguish their true identity. For some itcomes natur bothy, for others it mogul take age to find theiridentity, or they might never find it at all. In the novel TheirEyes Were Watching God Zora Neale Hurston reveals awomans identity through her struggles in life, her treatmentby society, and her thoughts on life. Janie a young AfricanAmerican girl who grew up in white life style believed shewas related of them till just about the age of six. This impactchanged Janies view on life. While she thought she was ableto do things the color of her skin held her back. This madeher try harder to pull through her goals. When her grandmother insisted that she marry Logan she did non wantto. Janie married him to fulfill her grandmothers dreams.Even though Janie did not love him she struggled till shecould not stand it and left with Joe. It had always been hiswish and desire to be a big voice and he had to live nearlythirty years to find a chance. (28) While, J anie was with Joein Eaton Vile she had a higher circumstance then the rest of the townsfolks mess. Janie tried to interact with them, but Joewould not let her. He thought of Janie as being better then allof them. This led to the way she was treated in society. Allof the women in the town thought Janie had everything, butJanie did not. She wanted to be excepted as part of them.When Joe died people in the town expected Janie to bemournful, so she put on an act for them. She sent her faceto Joes funeral, and herself went rollicking with thespringtime across the world. (88) After, Joes end Janiestill ran the store. While working she meet teatime Cake, heshowed her how to play checkers. Somebody wanted herto play. Somebody thought it rude(a) for her to play. (96)This represents how he treated her as equal. Tea Cakecompared to the other cardinal husbands in Janies life waseverything she was looking for. Tea Cake taught her somuch that she started to fell more independent. After, Tea Cakes death Janie grieves on the inside so much that she
colliery as a Manifestation of the wo(e) of Dante AlighieriDantes Inferno was a great epic poem of the early Renaissance. It was know for its astute commentary on political and religious levels, both late woven into the work through with(predicate) allegory. Inferno, written in 1314 by Dante Alighieri, was the early canticle of the Divine harlequinade. Dante called it a comedy both because of its happy ending and its style, which lies betwixt that of the tragedy and that of the elegy.(Vossler, 665) Although most respected bring throughrs of the time wrote in Latin, Dante wrote the Divine Comedy in the vernacular Italian language so that the common universe could read it. The fact that this masterpiece was written in the vernacular helped delegate Italian as the written language of their new age. From the misery and decadence surrounding him in his beloved Florence, he wrote the comedy because he wished to try out the path to goodness, the salvation of the human soul guide d by both reason and divine grace.(Vossler, 665) Dante intended the work to be read on three levels literal, allegorical, and moral. The work was structurally written in eleven syllable lines class in threes to make interlocking tercets. The rhyme scheme that he created for this is called terza rima(Vossler, 664), which forms the words in the pattern aba-bcb-cdc-ded and so on. These are class into conceptual units of 150 lines each, called cantos. The entire Divine Comedy has mavin ampere-second cantos, consisting of one introductory canto and three principal divisions(Vossler, 664) or canticles of thirty-three cantos each. In the spring of 1265 Dante was born to a modest noble Florentine family called Alighieri. flush though they were nobles, the family had lost its riches and high cordial stature through the generations. His mother died when he was young and his father is not often mentioned. He received a careful education, although little of it is known precisely. His fami lys modest social standing did not prevent him from pursuing his studies. Dante probably studied cajolery with the scholar Brunetto Latini, from whom he says that he learned how a man becomes everlasting(Inferno XV line 85). As a young man, Dante largely taught himself how to write verse, but he also studied with the great troubadours of Florence, writing to them and go his own love lyrics. In 1295 he began an active ... ... lines 52-53). The most punic crime Dante accuses Boniface of comes out of the mouth of another damned soul. instantaneously saying the pope had sinned was not a wise thing to do, one could be called a heretic and be killed. This poor spirit, Guido, was a soldier whose duty was to militarily advise Boniface when he broke into warfare with the Colonna family in 1297. Guido was very ill towards Boniface, saying, But for the High Priest - whitethorn he rot in Hell(Inferno xxvii line 70). He says about Boniface that he, the Prince of modern Pharisees,/ Having a war to wage by Lateran -/ Not against Jews, nor Muslim enemies,/ Every foe he had was a Christian,(Inferno XXVII lines 85-88). Guido charges the pope with waging war not against Jews or Muslims, but other Christians. Inferno was a manifestation of the frustration and pain Dante must have matte from the political and religious events of his day that exiled him from the city he so loved. Although Dantes trip took him through the depths of madhouse and expressed Christian beliefs about the afterlife, his thoughts were secular as he condemned one religious leader after another to the depths of the hell they had created for him.
Wednesday, March 27, 2019
Mark Antonys illustrious bringing is a great example of a good quarrel.The efficiency of Antony to convince an audience, who at the beginning were against him, of his point of view is remarkable. I specially love the way in which he is able to lift the pronounce unspoiled around to in fact mean dishonorable. Antony confronts a clump that is against him. In order to turn the crowd to his side he uses banter and rhetorical questions but without breaking hisword, not to wrong Brutus,?I tattle not to disprove what Brutus spoke?Antony indirectly persuades the crowd that Brutus was wrong in killing Caesar and that Caesars death should be avenged. The use of rhetorical questions in Antonys speech acquires the crowd to question what they once thought.You loved him once, not without causeWhat cause withholds you indeed to mourn for him??This rhetorical question goes against Brutus by questioning his speech in which he so greatly demonized Caesar. Now the crowd is starting signal to turn against Brutus in favor of Antony. The audience question themselves. This in turn makes them question what Brutus once told them. ?Perhaps Brutus homoipulated us to make us trust along his lines?, they may have questioned.He repeatedly states that ?Brutus is an honorable man?. The quote reveals much about the character of Brutus. Not only does Antony?s quote point, obviously, to the fact that Brutus is seen as an honorable man, but in its tone, it to a fault raises questions as to whether this honor is suitably placed. Brutus is seen by all of Rome as a good man and Antony sees the self-important side of Brutus which has developed from this. He notices this and uses it against Brutus. Through repeatedly stating the idea that ?Brutus is an honorable man?, he then points out the fact that Brutus is claiming to be so ?honorable? because he bump off Caesar. Antony impressively turns the citizenry from Brutus?s line of thought to his own. The respect from the people is not quite strong enough to hold when Brutus takes his supposed good intentions and kills his friend Ceaser. Brutus? reputation, although good, is not good enough to cover such blatantly faulty motives, which were unnoticed before they were subtly pointed out by Antony. ?Brutus is an honorable man?. It is paradoxical how his words ring true with both verity and sarcasm. With Antony?s one brief line an entire portrait of Brutus is created.
rose-cheeked wangle is an energy imbibing that doesnt do well in taste tests. Some say its too sweet. Others just shake their heads, saying, No. Its contents are not patented, and all the ingredients are listed on the outside of the slim silver can. and expiration shite has a 70 to 90 percent grocery store share in over 100 countries worldwide. During the past 15 years, the drink has been copied by more than 100 competitors, but such companies as Coca-Cola and Anheuser-Busch prolong been unable to take market share away from bolshy Bull.Says cherry Bull founder Dietrich Mateschitz, If we dont create the market, it doesnt exist.Mateschitzs secret to creating a $1.6 billion worldwide stampede for Red Bull lies in a highly ingenious buzz-marketing strategy that herds consumers to exclusive and elicit events that get high media coverage. Red Bull supports close to 500 frontmost extreme sports athletes that compete in spectacular and often record-breaking events crosswise the globe. Mateschitz explains, We dont bring the product to the consumer, we bring consumers to the product.Today Red Bull is a powerful global brand and very fewer customers know the story of the highly talented, creative and determined salesman, publicity-shy Dietrich Mateschitz. Tiny Austrias further billionaire, Mateschitz regain his place in the quaint lakeside colony of Fuschl, near Salzburg, Austria. His architect is currently varietying a new office building in the shape of two volcanoes. His exhibition of 16 airplanes is located in a steel and glass hangar, which serves as an aviation museum and the fundament of the Flying Bulls at Salzburg Airport. He tries to keep it down to working triplet days a week. He likes to keep things simple. The size of his headquarter staff is only 200. Mateschitz farms out the production and distribution of the 1.5 billion cans sold worldwide. The total consequence of employees worldwide is only 1,800, which brings the sales volume per employee close to a one million million million dollars. Mateschitz not only generates brilliant sales and marketing ideas, he is evenly talented in the execution of the biggest and boldest business ideas. His latest project involves a $1 billion motor sport and aviation theme honey oil in Styria, Austria.Dietrich Mateschitz founded the Red Bull company. According to company legend, the idea for Red Bull came about as Mateschitz sat at a Hong Kong hotel chevron in 1982... ...key to remaining market leader in the energy-drinks business. Last year, Coca-Cola, PepsiCo and Anheuser-Busch, an American brewer, each launched an energy drink, attempting to get a slice of the market in which Red Bull currently has a 70-90% share. Mr Mateschitz is not worried. The market isnt generic wine it doesnt exist if we dont create it. Its a branded market, he says.Keeping sedateMr Mateschitz now plans to spend two days a week glide path up with wacky ideas to promote Red Bull. Already, the com pany sponsors an annual Flugtag, when contestants build their own flying-machines and leap off a parapet into water, true to the Red Bull slogan It gives you wings. His latest project is to build a huge glass hangar at Salzburg airport to house his collection of ancient aircraft, including a DC-6 that once belonged to Marshal Tito, and to host airshows.That will change. We receive to go for diversification and acquisitions, and we are investing lots in R&D. We already have concepts and brand formulations for five years time, says Mr Mateschitz. But if Red Bull becomes a sort of Austrian Coca-Cola, that carefully cultivated ethos will drop like bubbles in the brew.
Tuesday, March 26, 2019
What We prate slightly When We Talk nigh passionAfter analyzing Raymond Carvers What We Talk slightly When We Talk Ab unwrap Love, it is easy to see that there are several divergent ideas concerning original get by that the characters in the story are in feud over. Terris idea of real fill in is the most valid out of the crowd at the table. All of the members of the group are quite an conglomerate as to what real love is. Terri is included as one of the confused. However, I deal that she is the closest to understanding what love is. A key ready of demo demonstrating her understanding of love is her remark to Laura and Nick. She scolds the couple for basing their relationship on somatogenetic aspects, rather than emotion or passion. Terri, like the rest of the party, is on her chip marriage. Her first husband was an abusive man that beat her, and regular dragged her by her ankles around their living room. Terris current husband, Mel, is a heart specialist that beli eves in spiritual love, and that between spouses, people are barren and unearth inside, and that he could be married to any other empty person without difference. Mel is rather shielded from emotion between spouses. His only real love lies with his children, unluckily Mel allows his conflict with his ex wife to block him from calling his them. Terri does love Mel, barely she reminisces about her time with Ed. Terri realizes that Ed was full of emotion, and that he was upright helpless and chaotic in his methods of sharing his feelings.... What We Talk About When We Talk About Love Essay -- Raymond Carver TruWhat We Talk About When We Talk About LoveAfter analyzing Raymond Carvers What We Talk About When We Talk About Love, it is easy to see that there are several different ideas concerning true love that the characters in the story are in dispute over. Terris idea of real love is the most valid out of the group at the table. All of the members of the group are rather confused as to what real love is. Terri is included as one of the confused. However, I believe that she is the closest to understanding what love is. A key piece of evidence demonstrating her understanding of love is her remark to Laura and Nick. She scolds the couple for basing their relationship on physical aspects, rather than emotion or passion. Terri, like the rest of the party, is on her second marriage. Her first husband was an abusive man that beat her, and even dragged her by her ankles around their living room. Terris current husband, Mel, is a cardiologist that believes in spiritual love, and that between spouses, people are barren and hollow inside, and that he could be married to any other empty person without difference. Mel is rather shielded from emotion between spouses. His only real love lies with his children, unfortunately Mel allows his conflict with his ex wife to block him from calling his them. Terri does love Mel, but she reminisces about her time wit h Ed. Terri realizes that Ed was full of emotion, and that he was just befuddled and chaotic in his methods of sharing his feelings....
Monday, March 25, 2019
The Case for the Redistribution of Ecotourism Gains in Kenya.Introduction Ecotourism, also know as responsible tourism, is defined as responsible locomotion to subjective areas, which conserves the environment and sustains the well-being of local people . Ecotourism has go away the fastest ontogenesis sub-sector of the tourist industry in the Third terra firma, it is growing at a rate of 6% per year . Bordering the Indian oceanic and located in Eastern Africa, Kenya reaps substantial benefits from ecotourism activities. Kenyas rich biodiversity and natural resources allow it to earn as much as 1/3 of its total foreign exchange revenues from ecotourism . A recent study of biz farming in Kenya has shown that wildlife tourism was fifty times more moneymaking(a) than cattle grazing and that an elephant herd was valued at $610,000 annually . Ecotourism exit therefore play a predominant role in the rustics economic development. In order to assess the equity implications o f ecotourism in Kenya, this paper will attempt to assess the distributional impacts of the policies local government activity have undertaken in Kenya to foster ecotourism and to propose suggested reforms and recommendations to help groups, who have traditionally been marginalized such as the Maasai.BackgroundKenya was a protectorate and a British colony from the late 1890s to December 1963, when the country gained its independence. Although Kenya is a relatively stable country, it has only been governed by 3 Presidents (from only 2 governmental parties) since independence. With a population of 31.3 million people , Kenya is a multi-ethnic country, whose administrative arrangements closely parallel ethnic boundaries . With a GNI/ capita of $360 , Kenya is still a ... ...ashington, D.C. Island Press.http//www.stpt.usf.edu/jsokolov/211maasai.htm, The Maasai of Kenya and Tanzania, option 1998http//whc.unesco.org/pg.cfm?cid=160, innovation Heritage Convention, UNESCOKamuaro, O. Ec otourism Suicide or Development?. Available from www.unsystem.org/ngls/documents/publications.en/voices.africa/number6/vfa6.12.htm united States Agency for International Development. 1996. Mid-Term Evaluation. Washington D.C. United States Agency for International Development.World Bank, http/devdata.worldbank.org/external/CPProfile.asp?CCODE=KEN&PTYPE=CP, Country profile Table, The World Bank Group.World Bank, http//www.worldbank.org/ke/ke_ctry_brief.htm, Country Brief, The World Bank Group in Kenya.Zecchini, A. Clash of Interests in Maasai Country- Kenyas Battle for Biodiversity, Le Monde Diplomatique, November 2000
The privacy Place by cirque ten-spot Boom According to Corrie & Betsie Ten Boom, life was a faith-building experience. Those two women were faced with one of the toughest experiences of their lives. Each day, Corrie and Betsie had to persuade each separate that everything was going to be okay, once they were free from the hell, or the submerging camp they were placed in. And, yet, Corrie and Betsie somehow managed to keep in see that God was with them. Corrie Ten Booms astonishing novel, The Hiding Place, is an extraordinary adventure of one courageous Christian adult female who had been sent to a concentration camp, along with her sister, for helping the Jews. Both the girls depended intemperately on Christs power and words to guide them through with(predicate) the tough times. They were not praying for themselves, but instead they were praying for the souls and the actions of the brutal Nazi guards. It was the class 1937. It was going to be a beautiful day for the 100th anniversary of the Ten Booms watch shop. Both Corrie and Betsie worked there, along with Hans -- the apprentice, Toos the sour faced and ill-tempered puny woman, Christolfels, a tiny little repair man with a big heart and who could forget father. Corrie describes father as the most loved man in altogether of Haarlem, Holland. Anyone who worked in the watch shop was treated very well. Life was simple. thither were no cars or TVs. Everyone in Haarlem lived their lives day by day and didnt care too much about the fut...