Thursday, September 3, 2020

Liquid Permeability of Porous Media Free Essays

string(44) Elevated Pressure Test choice is selected. 1. 0Summary This analysis is directed to decide the fluid penetrability of permeable media. The mechanical assembly utilized in the analysis is the fluid permeameter. We will compose a custom article test on Fluid Permeability of Porous Media or on the other hand any comparative point just for you Request Now The fluid utilized in this investigation is water. Three layer tests of various thickness (0. 1, 0. 2, 0. 3 cm) are utilized as the permeable media. The assurance of the penetrability is completed utilizing raised weight test. Each example is tried for multiple times at various estimations of weight angle which are 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 psi. So as to get increasingly exact information, guarantee that the layer tests to be test is fixed firmly and spreads the o-ring of the example chamber totally. Estimations of volumetric stream rates are acquired from the mechanical assembly itself. For pressure angle of 5 psi and 30 psi, the normal penetrability for PP1 film test are 0. 23993 cm2 @ 2. 33993? 10-5 m2 and 0. 096196 cm2 @ 9. 6196? 10-6 m2 separately. For PP3 layer test, the normal porousness are 0. 52692 cm2 and 0. 19841 cm2 for pressure angle of 5 psi and 30 psi. For PP5 film test, the normal penetrability are 1. 0541 cm2 and 0. 29489 cm2 for pressure slope of 5 psi and 30 psi. The estimations of porousness got are then analyzed by plotting diagrams of volumetric stream rate over cross sectional (q/An) against pressure angle over thickness (? P/L). The angle of the straight line from the diagram is  µ/k. For PP1 test layer, the porousness got from the chart is k= 0. 000148 m2 for ? P=5psi and k= 0. 000062 m2 for ? P= 30 psi. Penetrability got from the chart is contrasted and ones got from the fluid permeameter device. Reynolds number for the tests at ? P=5psi is 5. 3913? 10-5 and for ? P= 30 psi is 1. 1147? 10-4. Laminar stream conditions exist so that Darcy’s condition is appropriate. 2. 0 Introduction When liquid moves through a medium, the stream is influenced by the property of the medium that permits the progression of the liquid through it. The property of the medium is called penetrability. Porousness which is represented as k is the proportion of the capacity of a medium to move liquids. Porousness influences stream procedures of liquids. A successful stream procedure can happen if the penetrability of the medium where the liquids go through is high. Idea of porousness is significant in the oil and gas industry in which the penetrability normal for rocks are resolved so as to extricate oil and gas from the subsurface store. For instance, sandstones are penetrable and can transmit liquid viably. This sorts of stones had enormous and many associated pores. They may content high amount of oil. Shales and siltstones made out of fine grains and have less associated pores making them be less penetrable or impermeable. Porousness of a medium can be effectively decided from hardware with high innovation. It is imperative to know the variables or segment which may influence penetrability so as to demonstrate or expand the porousness. This may benefits the business which includes extraction forms. Exploratory outcomes are significant in light of the fact that to build the productivity of procedures including penetrability it is reliant on the information or results. 3. 0 Aims/Objectives The investigation is directed to target of this test is to decide the penetrability of the permeable media, to make conditions so that Darcy’s condition can be utilized and to look at the normal porousness for various weight inclination and sorts of tried examples just as to relate penetrability with different parts of Darcy’s condition. 4. 0 Theory Permeability is property of the permeable medium and is a proportion of the capacity of the medium to permit liquids to go through it. Penetrability idea is generally used to decide the stream qualities of hydrocarbonsâ inâ oilâ andâ gasâ reservoirs. Medium or rocks that have high porousness can permit liquids to go through it in huge amount after some time. This is demonstrated structure high volumetric stream rate. To evaluate porousness, expect that there is a medium with cross-sectional zone (An) and thickness (L). A liquid of dynamic thickness ( µ) is permitted to move through the medium. The adjustment in pressure that happens during the stream is ? P and the volumetric stream rate (q) is the measure of liquid that can course through the medium over some stretch of time regarding the ? P. Porousness (k) is identified with all the segments by the Darcy’s condition. Darcy’s condition: q=kA? P µL †¦.. (1) The SI unit for penetrability, k is m2. Porousness is additionally estimated in Darcy, D. 1 D is around 10-12m2. Variables influencing porousness are film dissolvability, weight, focus and temperature of the particles or solutes. Penetrability is additionally influenced by size of the atoms of the liquids that going through the medium. Darcy’s condition is legitimate for any Newtonian liquids and is just relevant for laminar stream. The laminar stream is constantly accomplished by groundwater however not generally accomplished by gas streams. Laminar stream can be controlled by figuring the Reynolds number of the stream. Re= ? vD µ 5. 0 Apparatus I. Fluid permeameter mechanical assembly ii. Fluid hose iii. Yellow chip pullers iv. Layers of various thickness, 0. 1, 0. 2 and 0. 3 cm v. Water 6. 0 Procedures I. 3 film tests of various thickness (0. 1, 0. 2, 0. 3cm) are readied. The examples are cut greater than the o-ring with the goal that they will cover the ring totally and to guarantee flawless fixing. ii. The fluid hose joined to the example chamber cover is separated. The top is unscrewed and evacuated. The chamber supplement and connector plates are taken out. The o-rings is checked for dryness. iii. Under Group on the primary CapWin menu, another gathering is made by tapping on New Group. iv. Under Execute on the primary CapWin menu, Autotest F2 is chosen. Autotest settings screen is opened. Test Type is clicked and Liquid Permeametry is chosen from the Test Selection box. At that point, Elevated Pressure Test choice is chosen. You read Fluid Permeability of Porous Media in classification Papers v. At the Autotest screen, a few data are entered in. The fields are as beneath. Yield File Name-client assigned End User-client assigned Test Reference-Liquid Permeametry; Elevated Pressure Test Sample ID-client assigned Lot Number-client assigned Operator-client assigned Fluid-Water Surface Tension Diameter-3cm for every one of the 3 examples Thickness-0. 1, 0. 2, 0. 3 cm vi. Done on the Autotest screen is clicked. ii. The screened connector plate is set in the base of the example chamber. The plate is adjusted on three chamber pins. The example is set on the highest point of the screened plate. The o-ring of the screened plate is checked so it seals against the example. Top con nector plate is place on the example chamber. viii. The chamber embed is set into the chamber. The supplement ought not be lower than the example chamber tallness. ix. Start Test button is clicked. Beginning weight, most extreme weight, point step pressure, greatest hold up among focuses and greatest number of focuses are entered in. Proceed with button is clicked after each worth has been entered. . Test chamber is loaded up with water. The top is in a bad way and hand-fixed. Fluid fill hose with speedy interface fitting is connected to the example chamber cover. xi. Snap Ok on the Autotest screen and the test is begun. xii. At the point when the test has finished, a Test Done discourse box showed up and clicked Ok. xiii. Test outcomes might be seen and broke down utilizing CapRep. Select Report from the primary CapWin menu and tapped on Execute Report to get to the information from the test. xiv. Steps (iii) to (xiii) are rehashed for various weight inclination (10, 15, 20, and 30 ) and two different examples with thickness 0. 2 cm and 0. 3 cm. 7. 0 Result For PP1 test with breadth, d= 3cm and thickness, L= 0. 1cm. Differential Pressure (psi)| Average Permeability| 5| 0. 23993| 10| 0. 17461| 15| 0. 13315| 20| 0. 11792| 30| 0. 096196| For PP3 test with breadth, d= 3cm and thickness, L= 0. 2cm. Differential Pressure (psi)| Average Permeability| 5| 0. 52692| 10| 0. 36709| 15| 0. 33807| 20| 0. 26133| 30| 0. 19841| For PP5 test with width, d= 3cm and thickness, L= 0. 3 cm. Differential Pressure (psi)| Average Permeability| 5| 1. 0541| 10| 0. 70806| 15| 0. 50627| 20| 0. 37001| 30| 0. 29489| 8. 0 Calculations I) PP1 test with distance across, d= 3cm and thickness, L=0. cm at ? P= 5psi. From the plotted diagram, q/An against ? P/L, a straight line got gives a slope of 0. 148. From the inclination of chart, we can register the porousness, k. Slope = y2-y1x2-x1 = 4-127-6. 9 = 0. 148 Gradient = kâ µ 0. 148 = k0. 001 Pa. s , k = 0. 000148 m2 @ 1. 48? 10-4 m2 The penetrability, k acquired from the CapWin programming is 0. 23993 cm2 @ 2. 33993? 10- 5 m2. ii) PP1 test with breadth, d= 3cm and thickness, L=0. 1cm at ? P= 30psi. From the plotted chart, q/An against ? P/L, a straight line got gives an inclination of 0. 148. From the slope of diagram, we can figure the penetrability, k. Slope = y2-y1x2-x1 = 12-6195-98 Gradient = kâ µ 0. 062 = k0. 001 Pa. s , k = 0. 000062 m2 @ 6. 2? 10-5 m2 The porousness, k acquired from the CapWin programming is 0. 096196 cm2 @ 9. 6196? 10-6 m2. iii) Calculations of Reynolds number At ? P= 5 psi, q= 2. 5424? 10-6 m3/s, V= 1. 7971? 10-9m/s, ? =1000kg/m3 Re= ? VD µ=10001. 7971? 10-9(0. 03)0. 001= 5. 3913? 10-5 (laminar stream) At ? P= 30 psi, q= 5. 2564? 10-6 m3/s, V= 3. 7155? 10-9m/s, ? =1000kg/m3 Re= ? VD µ=10003. 7155? 10-9(0. 03)0. 001= 1. 1147? 10-4 (laminar stream) 9. 0 Discussion Permeability of PP1 test layer at ? P = 5 psi and ? P = 30 psi are k = 0. 23993 cm2 @ 2. 33993? 10-5 m2 and k = 0. 096196 cm2 @ 9. 6196? 10-6 m2 separately. By plotting charts of q/An against ? P/L, the co