Saturday, December 28, 2019
Euthanasia, also known as voluntary or assisted suicide, is used for terminally ill patients to end their lives instead of undergoing painful treatments and torment of waiting for death. There are, however, two different ways in which A can bring about BÃ¢â¬â¢s death. In this essay I will present the distinction between active and passive euthanasia as explained by James Rachels in his article called Ã¢â¬Å"Active and Passive EuthanasiaÃ¢â¬ . I will also debate whether euthanasia is justified or not by presenting arguments both pro and against euthanasia including pain and financial burden as justifications for euthanasia and abuse of rights as against euthanasia. The major distinction described by Rachels would be, simply put, killing and letting die.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Rachels argues Ã¢â¬Å"To begin with a familiar type of situation, a patient who is dying of incurable cancer of the throat is in terrible painÃ¢â¬ ¦ This fact provides strong reason for thinking thatÃ¢â¬ ¦ active euthanasia is actually preferable to passive euthanasia, rather than the reverse.Ã¢â¬ (Rachels, 78) Rachels argument is that there is no moral difference between actively killing a patient and passively allowing the patient to die. For example, killing Joan benefits Bill. Whether Bill kills him directly or lets him die doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t affect the morality of the situation. Thus, both the situations would be considered equally immoral. The conclusion following the example above would be that there is no difference between killing (active euthanasia) and letting die (passive euthanasia). According to Rachels, accepting that there is a distinction between active and passive euthanasia would result in decisions about life and death being made on irrelevant grounds. For example, autistic infants sometimes have correctable secondary problems, such as having an intestinal obstruction; but decisions are made to forego corrective surgery (and thus let the infant die) simply because the parents do not want the burden of having an autistic child. In Rachels opinion, passive euthanasia may generally be preferable to active euthanasia which doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem right. Being allowed to die can be an incredibly painful process. A lethal injection, however, is less painful. Assuming a terminally ill
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Diabetes Diabetes is a common chronic disease that causes problems in the way the blood uses food. The inability of the body to transform the sugar into energy is called diabetes. Glucose is the primary source of fuel for our body. When foods are digested, some of those foods are converted into glucose. Glucose then is transferred into the bloodstream and is used by cells for energy. However, for the glucose to be transferred from the blood into the cells, insulin, which was produced by beta cells in the pancreas is needed. In individuals with diabetes, this process is impaired. Currently, the disease affects approximately 371 million people of the world s population with incidence and prevalence rates rising rapidly (Alotabi, A.,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Diabetes is associated with wide range of complications such as chronic renal failure, blindness, amputations, heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, neuropathy (Alotabi, A., et al., 2016). There is no known cure f or diabetes, but the disease can be controlled through health management that includes multiple perspectives of care such as medications, blood glucose monitoring, diet, nutrition, screening for long-term complications and regular physical activity (Alotabi, A., et al., 2016). Managing diabetes is complicated and requires knowledge and skills on the part of both healthcare providers and clients. Studies have shown that to prevent or delay diabetic complications, counseling and other lifestyle interventions are the effective therapy. However, although there are so many policies set up for diabetes, 8.1 million Americans are undiagnosed with diabetes mellitus, and approximately 86 million Americans ages 20 and older have blood glucose levels that considerably increase their risk of developing diabetes mellitus in the next several years (CDC, 2015). For diabetes care to be successful, it requires a good understanding of the disease and
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Edward J. Larson analyzes the pivotal presidential election, sometimes referred to as a revolution, of 1800 that established two disparate political parties, challenged the United States Constitution, and threatened the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s unity. Because this was the first time in American history that partisan campaigning was distinctly apparent, it was a significant piece of the election of 1800. When establishing the opposing campaigns of 1800, the article states, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦divided Americans into two distinct partisan camps: the Federalist of President John Adams and Alexander Hamilton Ã¢â¬âideological ancestors of modern Republicans- versus the Republicans, or the future Democrats.Ã¢â¬ Here it is not only giving information on the situation of the fourth presidential election, but the situation that set the precedent for presidential elections to come. Even Ã¢â¬Å"207 years laterÃ¢â¬ , as Larson writes, the political breach on policies and ideas shapes the government of the United States. The election of 1800 included the race between the following candidates: Thomas Jefferson, Aaron Burr, Alexander Hamilton and Charles Pinckney. We will write a custom essay sample on Election of 1800 or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page After all the votes were calculated Ã¢â¬Å"Jefferson and Burr had 73 votes each.Ã¢â¬ The election ended in a tie between two members of the same party. As an immediate result of the electionÃ¢â¬â¢s initial outcome, the Constitution was put to the test. The voting process in place by the Constitution showed its faults with the changing bipartisan mentality of America. This newly discovered weakness Ã¢â¬Å"led to the adoption of the 12th Amendment to the US Constitution.Ã¢â¬ This amendment prevented a repeat of the election of 1800 by making voting for president and vice president separate. Never again could tie be caused by equal voting by a party. Here the government adapted to the changing fundamentals of the partisan politics of the United States; it shows concern for the good people. In referring to the election of 1800 Larson concludes by making the claim that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦- the nation barely survived such contest.Ã¢â¬ He is saying that this event had the potential to crumble the United States. As opposing sides, political parties, emerged America could have separated. George Washington, in his farewell address, urged the country to avoid political parties and remain a cohesive unit; however, as politics evolved it was a natural occurrence for distinct parties to form. It was up to the American people and governmentÃ legislators to realize the problem and find a resolution in order to keep the unity of the United States of America. Compromises made by people throughout the election allowed for the choosing of a president, which at some points looked like a position that would never be filled. The election of 1800 marked the first peaceful transition of power in politics from one opposing party to another. It was unfamiliar territory that confronted the United States who proved to be a lasting nation, resolving conflicts of political parties, Constitutional amendments and keeping everyone as one nation. This revolution of 1800 turned out to be a defining moment for the government of the United States of America.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Strategy Similarities The two companies have similar strategies that they used in their overseas markets. First, both companies used price leadership strategy, whereby they sought to lead in low prices. Wal-Mart achieved this by being efficient in their costs management. As a result of low costs, they were able to charge low prices for their products compared to their competitors.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on International Expansion Strategies for McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s and Wal-Mart specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s also used low-price strategy. For instance, for only twenty cents, one can buy a small drink and small fries. In addition both companies used expansion strategy to create demand, whereby they open their branches in various locations to stimulate demand. For instance Wal-Mart has been opening retail stores all over Mexico with an aim of creating convenience to shoppers (Tilly, 2005). On the other hand, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has opened stores in high traffic areas in China, which has made customers to easily walk in for a meal (China Daily, 2004). Differences in Strategies McDonald has embraced localization strategies, whereby it has designed its services and products in line with the cultures of the Chinese people. For instance, McDonalds in 2004 changed the interiors of some of its restaurants to have a Chinese appearance. In addition, it introduced some Chinese foods in to its menus such as corn soup and vegetable soup (China Daily, 2004). However, Wal-Mart concentrates on selling standardized products which are either obtained from Mexican suppliers or from the US. Another difference is that. Although McDonalds focuses on low prices it puts more emphasis on quality and value. For instance it has a dollar menu which is also referred to as value menu. This is contrary to Wal-Mart which focuses more on reduced prices than on quality (Tilly, 2005). Influence of governme nt policies on expansion strategies The implementation of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s open-policy was an impetus to McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s expansion strategies. This is because restrictions against foreign firms were reduced; as a result the company was able to open up more restaurants in the country (Punithavathi Rajakumari, 2008). On the other hand, by the year 1991, when Wal-Mart entered Mexico the North American Free trade agreement was about to be passed. This was a motivation to Wal-Mart as trade barriers between the US and Mexico would be reduced. This therefore encouraged the company to continue with its collaboration activities with Cifra. In fact by 1997, Wal-Mart had bought the majority share of Cifra (Tilly, 2005).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Other factors affecting demand Culture is one major factor that is facing McDonalds, whereby the Chinese people prefer traditional food s that have extensive cuisine, color and flavor. Therefore the company has no option, as it is forced to come up with products and services that represent their culture. The other factor that affects demand is competition, whereby there are other established competitors in the Chinese fast food market. There is KFC which has expansive distribution networks, compared to McDonalds. Therefore McDonalds has been forced to differentiate itself as having the best beef products in the Chinese market (China Daily, 2004). Macro and micro environment factors Toyota has been able to beat its competitors in the automobile industry by selling the most number of cars in 2010. This is because as fuel prices and global production costs went up, the company was able to produce quality vehicles at a relatively lower price than its competitors (Toyota Motor Corporation, n.d). Microsoft Corporation has innovations that it has used to stay ahead of its competitors in the technology industry. Its capacit y to develop innovative application packages, has given it an edge over its competitors for more than three decades (Kalakota Whinston, 1997) References China Daily, (2004, June 01). KFC and McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s-a model of blended culture. Web. Kalakota, R. and Whinston, A. B., (1997). Electronic commerce: a managerÃ¢â¬â¢s guide. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley. Punithavathi, s. and Rajakumari, D. J., (2008). McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s in China. Web.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on International Expansion Strategies for McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s and Wal-Mart specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Tilly, C., (2005). Wal-Mart in Mexico: The limits of growth. Web. Toyota, (n.d). Innovation. Web. This essay on International Expansion Strategies for McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s and Wal-Mart was written and submitted by user Jovani S. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Generally people associate raves(Underground Techno parties) with designer drugs like Ecstasy(MDMA), Speed(amphetamine) and other acids like LSD. These drugs are called the Techno Drugs for that reason and most of the time have uplifting and sensatory effects. To understand more clearly the relationship between the raves and these drugs, we first have to understand the philosophy behind the Techno era, and a little about the music. "Techno, can lift the spirit and become a new world of freedom and peace(D'Vox Magazine The first electronic music Magazine). Most raves are covered with propaganda about freedom, peace, spirituality and the like. It is no surprise why teens use these specific drugs at raves. The effects of E, are like a journey to another world, a world of happiness, love and euphoria (Ecstasy and Mental Health: Nerves or neurosis by Dr. Karl Jansen) These ravers, have many reasons to take E, for example The music lends itself to the intake of drugs, drugs are common in y outh culture, teens need energy to dance all night, the rave scene is bombarded with all kinds of E (Drug Information Database, www.pharmlink.org/designer/index.html/). The media has given E and the rave scene a bad reputation, since 30 years ago music has been greatly united with drugs. For example Weed and Rock in the 60's and acid in the 70's. (E for Ecstasy by Nicolas Saunders, ch.1) Ecstasy is just a hard and dangerous as weed, a drug that 1 out of every 3 highschool students in the American population have had experiences with. (Drug Information Database, www.pharmlink.org/stats/index/main.html/) Why is E judged so harshly when the ecstasy related deaths can not compare with those related with legal drugs just like tabacco and alcohol. (E for Ecstasy by Nicolas Saunders, ch.2) Of course the media has a lot to do with it, the media takes all the negative effects and doesn't include the positive ones. 29 volunteers where asked to assist Dr. Green, prominent doctor in charge of studies for the BMJ (British Medical Journal), in a study of the effects of E. (Readers Digest article by Russell Twisk editor-in-chief) Out of those 29 volunteers they all experienced, unpleasant experiences such as nausea, sweating and stiffing (Readers Digest by Russell Twisk). Although the volunteers felt undesirable symptoms, 18 of the volunteers experienced mood changes, to the best, and 23 of them went reported positive attitudes. 7 of my patients who experienced depression made more improvement with E, than with years of therapy and other anti-depressive drugs. (British Medical Journal by Dr. Green Hancock). Drugs are harmful to the human mind, and body in many ways, it is also capable of preventing the body, and mind in fully developing. There are many types of drugs, there are drugs that slow you down, drugs that speed you up, and hallucinogens. Hallucinogenic drugs are substances that distort the perception of objective reality. The most well-known hallucinogens include phencyclidine, otherwise know as PCP, lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly known as LSD or acid, and psilocybin, or magic mushrooms. Under the influence of hallucinogens, the senses of direction, distance, and time become disoriented. You see sound and hear light. These drugs can produce unpredictable, erratic, and violent behavior in users that sometimes leads to serious injuries or death. Drowning's, burns, falls, and automobile crashes have also been reported. Some physical risks include mangled, and unclear speech, decreased awareness of touch and pain, convulsion, coma, heart, and lung failure. Psychological risks associated with using hallucinogens is depression, anxiety, paranoia, confusion, loss of control, and flashbacks. Marijuana is chemotherapeutic drug. This means that it can be used to treat certain types of cancer. The point of these past sentences is to make a point, the point is that marijuana can't really affect the body of the abuser's body since it is widely used in the practice of medicine. The things that marijuana can do to the body is as follows: make the eyes red, cause brain damage, low oxygen supply to the heart, and there is a possibility that it may even cause lung cancer. Marijuana might not have any major long-term affects but it sure has its immediate affects. These are more signs of use than immediate affects. For example one
Sunday, November 24, 2019
How Long Does It Take to Get ACT Scores Back SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips After you take the ACT, the anticipation isn't over! Now, you have to wait to get your scores. While the scores aren't available immediately, you don't actually have to wait too long to see your scores or have them sent to colleges. This guide will go over when you can expect to see your ACT scores for each test date, as well as the differences in score release dates for students who took the ACT with Writing. How Long Do You Have to Wait for Your ACT Scores? How long does it take to get ACT scores back? Not too long! ACT score release dates actually vary for students over a range of weeks. Most students, though, will get their multiple-choice scores just 10 days aftertaking the exam. Scores are often released on a Tuesday or Thursday, so they'll show up just 10 or more days after your Saturday morning test. They usually come out at 1 am Eastern Time (that's midnight Central Time or 10 pm Pacific Time). For any students whose scores aren't released on that day, they should check back weekly.ACT scores are released on a weekly basis, and all of them should be out within eight weeks of your test date. Students who test outside the US usually have to wait about three weeks to see their multiple-choice scores. If you took the ACT with Writing, your essay score will be added a little later- about two weeks after your multiple-choice scores come out.Although your scores might become available in these two installments, colleges won't receive your ACT score report until allscores have been finalized and released (multiple choice and Writing, together). Once all your scores are ready, ACT, Inc. will release your official Student Score Report, High School Score Report, and College Score Report. Again, most students taking the ACT in the US will get their multiple-choice scores about 10 days after testing, whereas a small number will have to wait one or a few weeks longer until their scores are ready. Do you know when you plan to take the ACT? If so, you can use the chart below to find your testing date and the earliest corresponding date you'll get your ACT scores. When Will Your ACT Scores Be Released by Test Date? The following ranges of dates indicate when your multiple-choicescores will be availableto view online from your ACT account.If you took the ACT with Writing, colleges won't get score reports until your essay has been graded as well. These are the range of dates when most students get their ACT scores. If yours haven't shown up yet, note that it doesn't necessarily indicate a problem. 2019-20 ACT Score Release Dates While the test dates have been officially confirmed for the 2019-20 testing year, score release dates have not, so the chart below shows our estimates for release dates based on the patterns of previous ACT testing years. ACT Test Date Multiple-Choice Scores Release Complete Scores (w/ Essay) Release Sept 14, 2019 Sept 24, 2019 Oct 8, 2019 Oct 26, 2019 Nov 5, 2019 Nov 19, 2019 Dec 14, 2019 Dec 24, 2019 Jan 7, 2020 Feb 8, 2020 Feb 18, 2020 Mar 3, 2020 Apr 4, 2020 Apr 14, 2020 Apr 28, 2020 June 13, 2020 June 23, 2020 July 7, 2020 July 18, 2020 July 28, 2020 Aug , 2020 As I mentioned, most students will get their scores on the earliest release date, or at least within this range. But some won't, making them wonder, "Just when will I get my ACT scores?" What are some reasons you'd have to wait longer for your scores? What If Your ACT Scores Haven't Been Released Yet? There are a few reasons why your ACT scores might come out later than the above dates. One is simply that ACT, Inc. has a lot of tests to grade and process, and they're running behind. Other possible reasons include the following: Your documents were delivered late to testing headquarters Your test date was rescheduled The personal information you wrote on your test doesn't match the information you provided during registration (this happens more than you might think!) ACT, Inc. detected an irregularity with your test scores or at your testing center ACT, Inc. randomly audited your test to check for scoring accuracy You owe registration fees What does it mean that ACT, Inc. could detect an irregularity with your scores? If you improve by an unusually large number of points between test administrations, ACT, Inc. might notice and check for possible signs of cheating. If they really think something's amiss, they'll contact you and might even invite you to send "evidence" of your studying. To prepare for this rare circumstance (maybe you didn't study at all for your first ACT and then did a ton of prep for your second), make sure to keep evidence of your test prep and write out all your work in your test booklet.This situation is rare, but it can take a really long time to clear up- which you might or might not have depending on your college application deadlines. Worst case scenario, ACT, Inc. will cancel your scores altogether and you'll have to retake the test. You should have your username and password handy on score-release day, andfind out whether others have gotten their ACT scores through either word-of-mouth and discussion forums, such asCollege Confidential. If you think there's an unusual delay in your scores, don't be afraid totake action and contact ACT, Inc. to figure out what's going on. Otherwise, check back weekly rather than every day, since scores are typically released on Tuesdays. Once you finally get your ACT scores, what do you do next? What to Do When You Receive Your ACT Scores It's a good idea to check your ACT scores the day they come out so you can decide whether you're happy with them or want to retest. If you're satisfied and need to send additional score reports to colleges, be sure to do this ASAP. The decision to retake the ACT depends on a number of factors. What are your target scores? How much prep have you done, and how much time do you have to prep again and retest? Have you already taken the ACT a bunch of times, or are you just getting started? Obviously, all this is a moot point if your college deadlines are just around the corner. Another consideration is whether or not your colleges have a policy of superscoring the ACT- that is,taking the highest section scores across all test dates and recombining them into the strongest possible composite score. This is an ideal policy that works in your favor, and it means you don't have to worry about doing worse in any one section upon retesting. Conclusion: When Do ACT Scores Come Out? While the time you spend waiting for your ACT scores might feel like along 10 days, it's actually a pretty fast turnaround considering how many tests ACT, Inc. has to get, score, and compare. Plus, all the essays are read and graded by actual people! In closing, don't be afraid tocontactACT, Inc.and figure out what to do if you sense there might be an unusual delay in your score release. You should also keep track of your ACT username and password so you'll be ready to log in right away on score-release day. If you're satisfied with your ACT scores, great! If not, no worries- simply figure out where you can focus your prep to improve for next time! What's Next? What are you aiming to score on the ACT? Learn about what makes a bad, good, and excellent ACT scoreas well ashow to set a target scorefor guiding your approach to test prep. Need help raising your ACT scores? Then check out our expert tips and tricks- 15, to be exact- for improving your ACT scores fast and effectively. Disappointed with your ACT scores? Want to improve your ACT score by 4+ points? Download our free guide to the top 5 strategies you need in your prep to improve your ACT score dramatically.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Is college worth the cost(investment) to attend - Essay Example People believe that their investments would be returned to them in spite of high price for education. People dream about numerous chances and opportunities of having higher returns after their investments into education. At the same time, there are different political parties, which, on the one hand, promote their social shifts through educational institutions, but, on the other hand, do not want to make reliable investments in education. Argument 1 Different prospects of higher returns are often misunderstood by people and they are often concerned about financial side of education and its high financial returns. Quality of education and personal striving in this process is often omitted. Education requires a high emotional and mind contribution. Different studies of the past years summarize the following assumptions about education: Ã¢â¬Å"the idea that college is an excellent investment paying a high return in terms of lifetime income has been buttressed by numerous studies over the years purporting to show that college graduates earn a large premium over a lifetime in comparison to individuals who earn only a high school diploma or who attend some college without completing a four-year degreeÃ¢â¬ (Wood 210). Again the matter is about financial and material side of the education. There is no word about qualitative and emotional load of education. A high intellectual attainment is very much required from the stud ents in the process of education. Educational institutions are on the way of improvement of their potential goals. A marketplace credential and a diploma of higher education are two different things. There is no way to compare them. A studentÃ¢â¬â¢s wholeness and intellectual attainment are proved by the diploma. Intellectual maturity and mindÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to produce emotional and creative power should be the main points for confirmation in the process of higher education. Argument 2 The University has often been
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
The Potential for Energy Savings Firms in Singapore - Essay Example Singapore is one of the largest oil refiners in the world. It has a distinction of being the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s busiest bunkering port and the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s third-largest oil trader. The Asia Pacific oil prices are set by the Singapore oil price. Singapore has to buy all the oil resources needed for the country from abroad. Like any other country, Singapore is also facing the challenge to the sustained energy resources supply. Since the country depends solely on imported oil and gas for its energy needs, Singapore is highly vulnerable to the risk of loss of supply. The competition for energy resources between nations is tightening day by day. Hence the requirement of energy security is very crucial for the country. In the national energy policy report, Lim HNG Kiang, the Minister for trade and industry of the Singapore Government, says that Ã¢â¬Å"Moving forward, we need a holistic national energy policy framework to meet our objectives of economic competitiveness energy security and environmental sustainability. As a small island state with limited indigenous resources, a strong and growing economy is our best defense against high energy prices and climate change.Ã¢â¬ Ã The SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s energy system is largely based on imported oil and natural gas. In order to sustain their economic growth and support civilization, Singapore must take serious consideration of their energy sector and should have a clear view on energy security. There is a need to become more energy efficient. Alternative resources for energy can be utilized by Singapore, but the resources are limited. Turning to nuclear energy like major countries in the world is not easily possible for the small island city nation. For that, they should consider oceanic nuclear power plants in international waters. Biofuel and solar energy are the other two alternatives for SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s energy sector.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Strategic HRM and how it is identified - Case Study Example External drivers have a direct impact on the internal needs of the company. It should be mentioned that the external and internal factors such as structure, people, technology and task are all interdependent. In Lafarge, planned organizational change is triggered by the need to respond to new challenges and opportunities of the external environment, and in anticipation of the need to cope with potential future problems. The external drivers for organizational changes involved international expansion and globalization of the industry. To some extent, external change drivers are caused by innovation rapid technological changes and innovations proposed by competitors within the industry. "The industry is also investing in alternative activities in order to protect itself from the economic impacts of business cycles" (Case Study). For Lafarge, the planned change represents an intentional attempt to improve, in some important way, the operational effectiveness of the company. The basic underlying objectives can be seen in general terms as: modifying the behavioral patterns of members of Lafarge; and improving the ability of Lafarge to cope with continuous changes in its environment. External drivers include new industry and customers demands including "greater safety, comfort, and quality" (Case Study), internalization of business, consolidation of industries, a global supply chain and the Internet solutions. One of the major changes deals with the specification of goods which may be considered in terms of their design features and performance characteristics. Increased competition and market demands create a new business environment and force Lafarge to accommodate to changing economic and business conditions. Internal change drivers are caused by company's mission and strategic objectives, new policies and new vision of the company. The internal forces involve the policy of acquisition and development and need to improve labor skills, attitudes of employees and need to improve organizational performance. Workforce diversity creates a great challenge for Lafarge to accommodate its structure to new business environment. "The work environment was driven by a demand for operational excellence. The organization was restructured and streamlined, and over 100% more employees were added to the group through new acquisitions" (Case study). For Lafarge, it is important to have technically competent staff able to cope with complex tasks and work under pressure. External drivers cause a continual need for the process of staff development, and training. The usual methods of boosting performance - process rationalization and automation - haven't yielded the dramatic improvements for Lafarge need. In pa rticular, heavy investments in information technology have delivered disappointing results - largely because companies tend to use technology to mechanize old ways of doing business. The acquisition strategy forces the company to introduce a shared culture and values based on unique cultural traditions and international HR practices (Reed, 2001). Competitive Strategies The competitive positioning school of thought, based primarily on the work of Michael Porter (1980, 1985), stresses the importance of how the organization is positioned with respect to its competitive environment or
Friday, November 15, 2019
Marketing Mix Analysis Of Le Bistrot Pierre Restaurant Marketing Essay Introduction Marketing mix is used to describe the combination of different marketing activities that a business does to best meet the needs of the market it is targeting (Jobber and Fahy, 2009). At first, the marketing mix was compounded of 4Ps; starting with the product, price, place and promotion. Thereafter other elements were added to these tools and these elements were; people, process and physical evidence. Considering the added elements, the marketing mix of 7Ps forms a tool that businesses use to satisfy the needs of costumers in the market it targets. Accordingly, the purpose of this report is to analyse how Le Bistrot Pierre, a French restaurant on Mill Lane, in Leicester uses the marketing mix. Identifying where this restaurant succeeds in using the 7Ps and where it fails and proposing what improvements can be made. The main product in Le Bistrot Pierre is the food and drinks menu. The products must provide good value for money for customers and be of a high quality to entice the customers to want to spend and to make a return visit. This restaurants food and drinks menu are of a very high standard. The website notes that the managing team of the restaurant often go to France to taste new foods and drinks to offer to their customers. Le Bistrot Pierre also offers a breakfast menu to its customers at selected branches. Unfortunately, Le Bistrot Pierre does not offer a childrens food menu. However, if the restaurant was to offer a childrens menu it would entice families to visit the restaurant knowing that they would not have to buy their children and adults meal only for a lot of it to be wasted. Furthermore, offering a childrens menu would promote the restaurants family friendly atmosphere and increase overall profits. As mentioned above Le Bistrot Pierre offers a breakfast menu, however it only offers this menu at its Leamington Spa, Harrogate, Stockton Heath and Stratford-Upon-Avon branches. Therefore, its customers in places like Nottingham and Leicester do not have the opportunity to taste this menu. Furthermore, although these 4 branches offer breakfast menus they all open at different times, for instance, Stratford-Upon-Avon offers its breakfast menu from 7am on weekdays whereas Leamington Spa only offers its breakfast menu on weekends (Le Bistrot Pierre, 2010). One problem with this is that customers who are travelling throughout the UK and see a Le Bistrot Pierre restaurant may assume that they can get a breakfast then realise that the particular branch they have gone to does not offer this service. Though Szymanski, et al (1993) suggest that marketing standardisation across business branches is still under constant debate, the effect of giving customers mixed perceptions about opening time s and breakfast service across cities may be problematic. Therefore to ensure that customers have a good customer experience at all times the chain should offer the breakfast menu at all its chains and at the same times. The Price It is important that the price should be competitive however the food offered should also represent the amount of money that the customer is spending on it. The lunch menu at Le Bistrot Pierre according to the website is Ã £9.75 for two courses and Ã £11.75 for three courses (Le Bistrot Pierre, 2010). These prices are reasonable when one looks at other French style restaurants in Nottingham. For instance, French Livings lunch time menu offers a two course meal for Ã £8.50 and a three course meal for Ã £10.50 (French Living 2010). In addition to this, Le Mistral in Nottingham offers a 2 course lunch menu for Ã £8.90 and 3 course lunch for Ã £10.90 (Le Minstral 2010). In regard the wine menu at Le Bistrot Pierre, they offer their cheapest white wine at Ã £13.75 and the most expensive at Ã £27.60, and for their red wine, their cheapest is Ã £17.95 and their most expensive Ã £61.75. This seems reasonable when compared with Le Mistral another French restaurant in Nottingham that offers their cheapest white wine at Ã £13.95 and their most expensive at Ã £45.50, and for their red wine their cheapest is Ã £13.95 and their most expensive is Ã £45.60. The Place Place is concerned with the location so that the customer can buy the product with ease, and its accessibility to the store is another important aspect. In the case of the restaurant it ideally should be in a central place. This means that it is in an area of high exposure for potential customers, be they on foot or in a car. In regard to Le Bistrot Pierre, they are located centrally in all their 8 locations. These locations are in different counties in the UK such as, Derby, Harrogate, Leamington Spa, Leicester, Nottingham, Sheffield, Stockton Heath and Stratford-Upon-Avon. Similarly, a new branch is being opened in Yorkshire, providing a wider reach to customers around the UK. A negative aspect of Le Bistrot Pierre is that it does not offer a car parking facility at any of its chains; therefore if someone wishes to park their car they will have to pay high central city prices. One potential improvement for future restaurants within this group would be to have a car parking facility to entice customers from the outskirts of cities to visit them. The Promotion Promotion involves different items and the ways in which businesses communicate their products to the customer showing the benefits of buying their products. Le Bistrot Pierre has 2 very popular promotions they do daily, the first is the Early Bird and Pre-Theatre menu which consists of 2 courses before 7pm and costs 13.90. The second is the Prix Fixe Evening with a glass of St. Jean wine which costs 15.50. In regard to special events, Le Bistrot Pierre offers the SoirÃ ©e Gastronomique menu on the 2nd and 4th Tuesday of the month for 21.90 and the Dine with Wine 3 course menu, each course comes with a specially matched wine for 26.90. In addition to this, Le Bistrot Pierre also promotes its brand via gift cards that customers can purchase for their family and friends to go and try the restaurants food and drink. The People People includes everyone who is connected to the product. This involves employees, customers, management and the business owners; therefore everyone has an important role in making the business succeed. The restaurant need to have qualified chefs and staff who can present the product to the customers and are experts in French cuisine. Le Bistrot Pierre details on their website the type of person they wish to work them, noting that they wish to employ people who are friendly, enthusiastic, hard working and care about giving excellent customer service in a busy restaurant environment. Le Bistrot Pierres website has several reports from journalists promoting the superior quality of their food. Furthermore, Le Bistrot Pierre uses the media and journalists to promote their offers and competitions for free evening meals. The Process Process focuses on the activities done to the product before it is provided to the customer and the method or the process used to provide the service. The main element in process is time, if the process takes long, the sale of the product will be affected. Interestingly, the Le Bistrot Pierre team visits some suppliers in order to ensure the health of the livestock purchased. This evidently expresses the concern that the management have towards providing the customers with their monies worth. Accordingly, the quicker the process is, the more appreciated the product. In the restaurant website news section, an article taken from Leicester and mercury newspaper dated 3rd June 2010 shows an appreciation to this process of being quick and flawless. The only slight let down mentioned by the writer Gary Mitchell was that when he ordered chocolate mousse for his desert, he ended up with an Orange chocolate he did not order. The Physical Evidence Physical evidence can be defined as the experience in the use of either service or product. For example, brochures or pamphlets that describe the product to the customer to enable him to know what he is buying and its qualities. Also, the restaurant is furnished in a very warm way in which the high and middle class individuals will be comfortable dining and wining. Moreover, the arrangement of the hall can be adjusted to suit family seating. This means customers of different categories can find convenience in Le Bistrot Pierre. In the case of the different restaurant servings, it is described in its various menu cards for starters, main courses, desserts, and drinks. Conclusion In general, Le Bistrot Pierre used all the 7Ps of the marketing mix to meet the needs of the customers, though it slightly failed to use them fully as Gary Mitchells article points out. Improving the quality of the service, adding childrens menu and creating home delivery meals, would help to increase the popularity of the restaurant; though it has already set a good reputation in gastronomy as the restaurant declares it in the website. Furthermore, Le Bistrot Pierre may preferably consider putting the breakfast menu in all branches that do not have this menu yet. This should be supported by specific timing for the breakfast start in all branches. Finally, Le Bistrot Pierre do not have car park and may lose some customers. They could try to create arrangements (or contract) with the nearest car park and tell the customers they have free parking. This will serve as a means to entice potential customers and increase business for the restaurant.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
The question of whether or not that Pope John Paul II should be canonized can be answered by a review of his teachings and his actions throughout his life. There are countless details and reasons which illustrate that Pope John Paul II is a probable and anticipated candidate for canonization. John Paul has practiced heroic virtue, lived in fidelity to godÃ¢â¬â¢s grace, and is believed to carry the Holy Spirit inside him. These reasons will be supported by linking his life on earth with a canonization excerpt from the Catechism. John Paul was supporting and ratifying. His journey began on May 18, 1920 in southern Poland. JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s mother died when he was only 9 years old and was raised by his single father who supported his schooling. He was always optimistic and looked forward to aiding others through his path, until he enters Heaven. As a young teenager, John was an athlete and an actor. Despite his busy schedule, he always took time to work as a volunteer librarian. This demonstrates that John Paul shows GodÃ¢â¬â¢s grace in helping others in spite of living a fun and ruthless life as ...
Sunday, November 10, 2019
From researching online databases of my city, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve found that we are focused on planning ahead for disasters such as hurricanes, or even different forms like terrorism for example. The city acknowledges this strategic planning needed, as well as building public awareness and the development of hazardous mitigation and emergency response plans. According to the mayor, these plans are at completion and ready for use when or if the time ever comes. It was also found that all of this preparedness has been keeping the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s homeland security team completely busy for the past few years as the city stresses necessary training, new equipment and education and the growing development of the new Community Emergency Response Team. If you are to draw any evidence from these actions of my city, it is that the key stress is maximum preparedness and planning which isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a bad emphasis when youÃ¢â¬â¢re dealing with natural disasters. Agencies One agency in the city of West Haven in regards to emergency preparedness is the Medical Reserve Corps or MRC. They are actually sponsored by the office of the U.S. Surgeon General. As a community based volunteering network, they are organized to support the existing public health structure during emergencies and even non-emergency events. The responsibilities include managing natural disasters, illnesses, man-made emergencies and community health events. Member positions range from medical practitioners, nurses, mental health professionals as well as miscellaneous volunteering roles. Another agency with emergency preparedness in my city is the Community Emergency Response Team or CERT. On September 23, 2006 CERT was launched in West Haven with thirty two volunteers. The theory behind the development of CERT is actually quite obvious but some places might never put this into perspective sadly. In major emergencies itÃ¢â¬â¢s a fact that emergency services are overloaded instantaneously. With CERT created it gives ordinary civilians the training opportunity they need to be prepared in emergency circumstances. This opens up the opportunity for a more independent societyÃ with less of a need to seek professional emergency officials help in a time of crisis. Every area in our world faces the threat of earthquakes and tornadoes and the most common disasters we face are severe storms and floods. Essentially CERT is needed everywhere whether people believe it or not, itÃ¢â¬â¢s just whether or not the location acknowledges this. Geography West Haven has a total of 11 square miles of which 0.2 square miles is water and the remainder of space is land. Containing 3.5 miles of publicly accessible beaches, West Haven is bound in the southwest by The Oyster River, northwest by the town of Orange, north by New Haven, northeast by The West River, to the east is New Haven Harbor and to the south there is Long Island Sound which is separated by a break wall. With so much water lining the city it is quite vulnerable to water hazards like flooding and property damage during the several storms or hurricanes we get over the years. I myself have seen lots of homes on the water cease to exist because of these hurricanes in the past few years. In addition to that, there has also been much sand erosion on our beaches within the past few years. Literally half of the distance from our road to the water that was covered with sand now lies there.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Game of Politics essays What is politics? To the average individual, politics may be the practice of government or the managing of public affairs. However, in Christopher Matthews Hardball, politics is depicted as much more than something that deals with the government. In fact, politics, as portrayed by Matthews, is simply one big game in which a person adroitly and tactfully and does whatever is necessary to learn and eventually reaches the top, while making sure that his personal interests are fulfilled as he does so. Throughout the course of the book, Matthews gave numerous examples of how many famous politicians used their cunning tactics to get ahead. And these tactics, ranging from retailing to wholesaling, are what eventually allowed these politicians to work their way up to the top. In fact, among the several tactics mentioned, one can clearly perceive that retailing, keeping ones enemies where one can see him, spin, and wholesaling are key to the game of politics, for in essence, these are the suc cessful methods by which ordinary men became renowned politicians. Perhaps retailing, or working one individual at a time, best illustrates how politics is played. In fact, it was this technique that Lyndon Baines Johnson used to become staff aide, and then the Senate Majority Leader, and finally President of the United States. Basically, what Johnson did was he pleased one legislator at a time, letting him know that his concerns no matter how minute, were of great importance to Johnson. And this, LBJ did until he had achieved his goal. According to House aide Craig Raupe, LBJ would take nineteen names and call them all. This clearly shows that Johnson took the time to get to know those with whom he dealt. By taking the time to speak with each individual and paying tribute to his works, LBJ allowed his victim to feel as though he was important. Thus, as every man loves to hear about h ...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Marx Marxism and Marxian Analysis Tha Essay Marx: Marxism and Marxian Analysis Tha Essay 1. discover the key principles of the marxian approach - namely dialectical materialism 2. decide whether the key concepts generated by those principles fit these recent changes: A. the dominance of a liberal-capitalist form of political economy, and its increasing control over countries around the globe and 2.2 of corporations growing bigger than national economies ie becoming transnational corporations 2.3 the increasingly alienation(lack of control over the system they have created) of the capitalists leading them to lose control of the financial systems they create (eg low prime loans being reconstructed, or split and shuffled, into securitised bonds sold around the world to buyers who are unsure of what it is they are buying) Marx in vol III of Capital forwarned readers of these 2007 events.and of these 2.4 the increasing alienation (lackof control)of the poltical forms supporting this economc system 2.5 the increasing exploitation of the work force as the transnational firms move to cheaper and less protected workers in labour markets around the world. B. On the other hand, this increased power of the Transnational companies to move to cheaper labour forces around the world, has meant that: in the richer Western countries: a)The physical labour of the working class diminishes to be replaced by a mixture of white collar, clerical, service and professional workers and long term unemployed. b) the economic culture has increased both the level of consumerism and complicated loans systems that has enabled a higher proportion of people to live the life-style of the middle class ie increasing home ownership levels/constant updating of their cars/kitchens etc Thus the abrupt conflict in the West between the working class and the capitalist class based on an increasing level of class consciounsess of the working class- has not developed. C.Gender,non Heterosexual and Racist structures of power intersect with Class inequalities.However, this can be interpreted either as an alternative to, or as an additional aspect, of the conflictual relations of a Liberal Democratic Capitalist society.. D. Similarly the rise and decline of Bureacratic forms of Communist control in Russian, China, etc
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Preservation of rainforests & maintaining ecobalance - Essay Example In addition it is very sad to note that about 150 acres of rainforests are victims of fire every minute equating to 200,000 acres every day meaning annually 78 million acres of valuable rainforests are going up in smoke! The colossal loss due to deforestation of rainforests can be gauged from the statistics given below: Extinction of rare medicine men (called shamans) having knowledge of the herbs and plants of medicinal value in rainforests: for example in the Amazonian rainforest the population of Indians has dwindled and fallen to a mere 200,000 from ten million in five centuries. Consequences of deforestation can be classified into local and global sectors. The immediate effects of deforestation are evident at local level and the effects at global level are evident in long term. The forest acts like a sponge by absorbing enormous amount of water during heavy rainfall and releasing at regular intervals, thus preventing floods and drought cycles. On deforestation the rainwater immediately drains off through streams into rivers, thus raising their water level and submerging villages, cities and agricultural fields downstream. During dry season the areas downstream are prone to long droughts, preventing river navigation and interrupting industrial operations. Rainforests help raise the humidity levels through transpiration resulting into good rainfall. Deforestation results in decline of rainfall since less or no moisture is evapotranspired into the atmosphere. Globally the wind and ocean current patterns are altered due to deforestation of rainforests and the r ainfall distribution is bound to become unstable (Source: Consequences of deforestation of Mongabay.com site). Deforestation also results into erosion of fertile soil, thus reducing the productivity and increasing the expenditure on fertilizers. The washed off fertile soil gets accumulated on river bed thus raising water level and causing floods, the silt may also obstruct the hydroelectric projects located downstream (Source: Consequences of deforestation of Mongabay.com site). Deforestation results in reduction of oxygen levels increase in carbon dioxide and other gas levels in the atmosphere. This effect is called "greenhouse effect". The greenhouse effect causes a rise in temperature allover the world i.e., Global Warming and it has long term repercussions (Source: Consequences of deforestation of Mongabay.com site). The various species of living forms in a rainforest be it plants or animals have developed a complex symbiotic relationship for millions of years, when one species is removed from this complex system the whole system is severely effected. In a symbiotic relationship both the participating species benefit mutually. Symbiotic relationship is a rule and not an exception in rainforests (Rainforest Ecology). Human being is solely responsible both direct and indirect deforestation by indulging in various activities such as slash-and-burn farming,
Friday, November 1, 2019
Financial analysis of Vodafone and Exeter University - Essay Example Establish a robust and emerging market. The organization aims to manage a dynamic portfolio in order to render the maximum gains to its investors and shareholders. The capital structure of the firm must be aligned in such a manner that the return and strategy are both in tandem with each other and the shareholders gain maximum returns with the new three year dividend target. The Key Performance Indicators of Vodafone are based on the continuous monitoring and control by the Board of the Directors along with the Executive Committee to measure the financial performance of the company against the strategic objectives. The performance is measured on both the financial and non-financial terms reflecting upon the organizational strategy and operations. The free cash flow generated by the organization values ?7,241m which can be used by investments and other financial purposes such as managerÃ¢â¬â¢s salary etc. The organic growth of the company is estimated to be ?4,051m , almost 19.3 % T he capital expenditure incurred by the company for meeting the needs and requirements of its customers is ?6,192m It was witnessed that at the end of the financial year 2010, many markets relocated to NPS that is another source to measure the customer satisfactory levels. EBITDA is used as a measure to monitor and control segment wise performance of the company which is calculated to be ?14,735m (7.4) % in 2010. Apart from the above, the performance of the company can also be judged from the total increase in employees from last year to a count of 5893 employees out of which major senior positions have been grabbed by female employees. Vodafone has to combat threat of fierce competition among few... Financial analysis of Vodafone and Exeter University Vodafone Group being a private company deals in the global telecommunication business which is headquartered in UK and spread across 30 countries. The organization extends a wide span of voice and data services to many countries across the world through the medium of mobiles. The span of control extends from Europe, Africa, and Middle East, America to Asia-Pacific. The product line of the company ranges from fixed line, internet services to digital television. The total revenue of the organization in the year 2010 was Ã £44.47 billion; the operating income was calculated to be Ã £9.480 billion and the total profit was ascertained to be Ã £156.98 billion in 2010. The organization stands second in terms to total number of subscribers. The company is a listed company featured in the primary list of London Stock Exchange and secondary listing on NASDAQ, also being a fundamental component of 100 Index. The total revenue of the Vodafone group has witnessed an 8.4 percent increase, reach ing almost Ã £44,472 million. Vodafone believes that EBITDA that is ascertains does not entail few items that may have an impact on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance, hence to offset the imbalance the EBITDA is evaluated in coordination with the other GAAP and non-GAAP principles that gives a fair view of its operating profit figures. However the adjusted operating profit calculated by the firm does not include non-operating income, the impairment losses etc.
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Judicial Process - Research Paper Example This has lead to juveniles being punished under adult criminal sentencing guidelines, which is more severe than in juvenile courts. considerable research work on juveniles in adult criminal courts have been conducted throughout time with others focusing on their character in courts, punishment outcomes in adult courts and comparing them to the juvenile courts. Juvenile Punishments in Adult Criminal Courts There have been varying conclusions into the degree of severity of the judicial outcomes, although, most concluded that the degree were less severe to those melted out to adult offenders. Juvenile courts and adult courts are very different in functionality and as such, comparison of the courts would not bring meaningful conclusions. The most practical analysis, therefore, is to look into juvenile outcomes in adult courts and compare to similar cases amongst young adults with similar offences. Several research work on this has also produced diverse results, however, most studies conc ur that juvenile status toned down the severity of sentences in adult courts, but not the actual court process. Additionally, other research work indicated that there are juvenile penalties in adult court, which seem harsher compared to similar cases by young adults. These results show several research work conducted by different scholars applying different methodologies and within different judicial jurisdiction. Sentencing Guidelines Earlier sentencing structures were consistently based on rehabilitative notions that focused on personalized punishments that would suit each offence, terms of imprisonment were varied and this allowed for a degree of flexibility in their application. Policymakers and the public however, came to realize huge loopholes in such system, this lead to proliferation of sentencing guidelines in more than half of the states. Sentencing law represents Ã¢â¬Ëprocedurally rational lawÃ¢â¬â¢ contrasting sharply with Ã¢â¬Ësubstantively rational lawÃ¢â¬â¢ th e latter provides for punishments to be personalized to fit eccentric offender needs and considerations. These presents a conflict to the society, one of establishing order and the other of punishing individuals based on unique circumstances. However, the latter applicability has always been argued aids in seeking fair just and proportional outcomes for each individual case. The guidelines that have been promulgated have lead to containment of judgesÃ¢â¬â¢ decision, explaining the reason why judges prefer their judgment on particular cases. The sentencing guidelines also differ on jurisdiction, for instance those in the state of Maryland are different from those in the state of Pennsylvania. In recent years however, most sentencing guidelines have been more flexible in their applicability, providing a wide range of alternatives for each offence. For instance, some states implemented Ã¢â¬Å"presumptiveÃ¢â¬ guidelines and these legally mandated judges to sentence within guideline s ranges except in rare circumstances involving departures (Johnson and Kurlychek 2012). Other states implemented less restrictive Ã¢â¬Å"voluntary guidelinesÃ¢â¬ , which provide judges with benchmarks for sentencing, but they do not legally require the judge to sentence within the guidelines recommendations. Cases involving juveniles in adult courts by definition are atypical, this is because juvenile status represents a unique offender considerations, it may play as
Monday, October 28, 2019
Discuss what Lady MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s persuasive language in 1.7 reveals to the audience about her character Essay Example for Free
Discuss what Lady MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s persuasive language in 1.7 reveals to the audience about her character Essay Discuss what Lady MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s persuasive language in 1.7 reveals to the audience about her character relationship with her husband In ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Macbeth, he portrays Lady Macbeth as a strong female character whom is equal to Macbeth and sometimes even stronger than Macbeth which was unusual for the time as at the time, men were considered to be above women as they believed in the divine order of the universe which stated that men came before woman and that women should only be there to serve men and obey their husband and their father and not question their husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s decision. In Scene 1.7, Shakespeare uses Lady MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s language and sexual parts to persuade her husband into killing Duncan so that she can become Queen. She even goes as far as question MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s manhood. One of the quotes which supports my point is ,Ã¢â¬ We fail? But screw your courage to the sticking-place, and weÃ¢â¬â¢ll not fail.Ã¢â¬ which Lady Macbeth said to Macbeth after he questioned him and not obeying him. She used a rhetorical question which is seen in the above quote to scould him as would a child which is going against all of the things that a wife should be at that time and she is talking to him like a child when she tells him to get his courage up and reassures him that they will not fail which is all influenced by the rhetorical question. She also questions his manhood in the quote,Ã¢â¬ When durst do it, then you were a man,Ã¢â¬ by scolding him and saying that he is not a man now as he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t dare to do it and this has made him more feminine which is a great insult to give someone in Shakespearean times, which proves my point that Lady Macbeth does not want to give up and she f ft ff people into doing whatever she wants him to do. I believe that this quote is one of the strongest quotes which proves my opening point. Another quote which I believe proves my opening point is,Ã¢â¬ What beast wasÃ¢â¬â¢t then, that made you break this enterprise to me? When you durst do i t, then you were a man.Ã¢â¬ This states that Lady Macbeth is hurt as Macbeth broke a promise to her. She uses repetition in the quote and she repeats the word Ã¢â¬ËyouÃ¢â¬â¢ which you could infer as making an accusation against Macbeth or you could infer that she is honestly hurt by Macbeth as she expresses hurt by her use of language in this quote. In this quote she also uses a rhetorical question which you could infer that she is so hurt and angry, she does not want him to answer the question and she ends with a very strong insult which a Ã¢â¬Å"lovingÃ¢â¬ wife would never make to her husband, especially in the Shakespearean times. She further evaluates the importance of a promise to her in the quote, Ã¢â¬Å"know how tender tisÃ¢â¬â¢ to love the babe that milks me. I would, while it was smiling at my face, have plucked my nipple from his boneless gums and dashed the brains out, had I sworn as you have done this.Ã¢â¬ This quote proves that Lady Macbeth would do anything if it would uphold her promise even if it would mean killing her own child to uphold a promise. This quote also shows how truly hurt Lady Macbeth is and how angry and how fearful she is and her dertermination to get what she wants. This is quite masculine of her but I will cover more on that after this. A quote which shows how devious and courageous Lady Macbeth is, Ã¢â¬Å"Who dares receive it other , as we shall make our griefs and clamour roar upon his death?Ã¢â¬ This quote proves that Lady Macbeth is doing whatever she can to get what she wants. She uses persuasive language such as Ã¢â¬ËdaresÃ¢â¬â¢ which is a very strong word as it involves taking a risk and a risk which could ultimately stab you in the back. This quote also shows Lady Macbeth putting on a false face and pretending to grief and mourn for the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s loss however in actual fact, it was her which set up the King to be killed. This shows that Lady Macbeth will be decisive and manipulate whoever she wants to get what she desires. A quote which I have mentioned before but I want to go more into detail is, Ã¢â¬Å"know how tender tisÃ¢â¬â¢ to love the babe that milks me. I would, while it was smiling at my face, have plucked my nipple from his boneless gums and dashed the brains out, had I sworn as you ha ve done this.Ã¢â¬ I strongly believe that this is the quote which really well establishes Lady Macbeth is a brutal and a character which will do anything to get what she most desires and not to care about anything or anyone else, just to get on top. This quote portrays Lady Macbeth as a mother which is a role which you need to care only about the baby and nurture the baby and bring it up as your own. This quote mentions that Lady Macbeth knows what it is like to breastfeed a baby but the play has not mentioned anything about Lady Macbeth and a baby, but I will get to that in further detail in my conclusion. This quote also mentions her killing the baby in the most brutal way: when it is itÃ¢â¬â¢s most vulnerable. During a breastfeeding. This shows that Lady Macbeth will do anything to keep a promise and you could infer that because of her incredibly detailed description, that she has done this before. One more quote which I believe solidifies my first point is, Ã¢â¬Å"And live a coward in thine own esteem, letting Ã¢â¬Å"I dare notÃ¢â¬ wait upon Ã¢â¬Å"I wouldÃ¢â¬ like the poor cat iÃ¢â¬â¢thÃ¢â¬â¢ adage? Ã¢â¬ This quote shows that Lady Macbeth is angry and full of adrenaline which really provokes her use of language in this quote by calling her husband a coward for backing out of his commitment and letting him live in the shame of not doing his deed which also interrupts the divine order and being a good wife in the Shakespearean times. She defies all this when she does not listen to her husband and takes on the role of the husband in the relationship in this quote and in this whole scene. In conclusion, I believe that Lady Macbeth is full of anger, grief and betrayal as she confronts Macbeth in this scene by saying that he is not a man and by calling him a coward and informing or reminding him of what she would do if she promised him. She would even go as far as killing her own child if that is what she has promised which means that she has built up a lot of trust in this relationship and she does not want to lose it now. By saying she knows how it feels to love a baby who she has breastfeed could imply that she and Macbeth had a baby and it died or it got murdered. If it got murdered or it got killed because of a promise she made, which she has proven is the most important thing to her, probably fuels her anger and hurt in this scene which makes this scene make so much sense that it is my final implied conclusion. The reason that I have inferred is that Lady Macbeth is so passionate and angry in this scene is because she had a baby and it died because of a promise she made which is why she made such an important and a significant reference to this is because this happened to her and she does not want it to happen again.
Saturday, October 26, 2019
The hero in William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s tragedy Othello is guided to murder by his passions. Which passions? Jealousy? Sexual jealousy? In this paper let us look into these questions. In the volume Shakespeare and Tragedy John Bayley denies that jealousy is a major causative factor in the play: The play eludes with ease any attempt to pin it down to a solution: why it happened, what caused it, what weakness in Othello was involved? Even jealousy as such is not the reason. Jealousy is a long-term affair, with its own rules and customs, its own subterranean animosities and grudges. (204) Contrasting with this critical opinion is that of another esteemed critic. Lily B. Campbell in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Tragic Heroes definitively categorizes Othello as a Ã¢â¬Å"study in jealousyÃ¢â¬ : Othello has suffered less in its modern interpretation than any other of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s tragedies, it would seem. So insistently did Shakespeare keep this tragedy unified about the theme of jealousy and the central victims of the passion, so obviously did he mould his plot about the black Moor and the cunning Iago and the victims of their jealousy that no interpreter has been able to ignore the obvious intention of the author. Yet if we study the contemporary interpretations of the passion here portrayed, we find that Shakespeare was following in detail a broader and more significant analysis of the passion than has in modern days been understood. The play is, however, clearly a study in jealousy and in jealousy as it affects those of different races. (148) Can we narrow down the concept of jealousy in this play to a specific type? Helen Gardner in Ã¢â¬Å"Othello: A Tragedy of Beauty and FortuneÃ¢â¬ sees this play as a study in sexual jealousy: Othello is not a study in prid... ...vington, David, ed. William Shakespeare: Four Tragedies. New York: Bantam Books, 1980. Campbell, Lily B. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Tragic Heroes. New York: Barnes and Noble, Inc., 1970. Ferguson, Francis. Ã¢â¬Å"Two Worldviews Echo Each Other.Ã¢â¬ Readings on The Tragedies. Ed. Clarice Swisher. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1996. Reprint from Shakespeare: The Pattern in His Carpet. N.p.: n.p., 1970. Gardner, Helen. Ã¢â¬Å"Othello: A Tragedy of Beauty and Fortune.Ã¢â¬ Readings on The Tragedies. Ed. Clarice Swisher. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1996. Reprint from Ã¢â¬Å"The Noble Moor.Ã¢â¬ British Academy Lectures, no. 9, 1955. Jorgensen, Paul A. William Shakespeare: The Tragedies. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1985. Shakespeare, William. Othello. In The Electric Shakespeare. Princeton University. 1996. http://www.eiu.edu/~multilit/studyabroad/othello/othello_all.html No line nos. Ã Ã
Thursday, October 24, 2019
p1 & 2 Unit 14- Assignment 1 Ã¢â¬ËPhysiological disorders, their nature, signs and symptomsÃ¢â¬â¢ Unit 14- assignment 2 Ã¢â¬ËDiagnosis- how it is carried outÃ¢â¬â¢ Contents Coronary heart disease (CHD)2 Signs and symptoms2 Factors that can affect the development of the disorder3 How is CHD diagnosed? 3 Treatments4 Lifestyle changes that could be made4 What medication can be used? 5 What types of surgery are used to treat CHD? 5 Recovering from CHD6 CrohnÃ¢â¬â¢s disease7 Signs & symptoms7 Causes7 Complication that can occur8 Diagnosis8 Treatments8 Medication8Surgery9 Bibliography9 Coronary heart disease (CHD) Blockage of the coronary arteries by plaque may cause a heart attack. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a term used to describe what happens when the blood supply to the heart is blocked or interrupted by a build up of fatty substances in the coronary arteries. CHD is a preventable disease that can be treated. Over time the walls of the arteries can become clogged up with fatty deposits. This is a process that is known as atherosclerosis. The fatty deposit is known as atheroma. Signs and symptomsThere are various symptoms of CHD; palpitation of the heart, this is an unusual awareness of the heart beating, this is a common symptom. Palpitation of the heart is normally described as skip in a heartbeat, which is often a pause followed by a strong beat, or a period of rapid and irregular beats. Unusual breathlessness, this is where the person suddenly looses their breath for some unknown reason. Angina is another symptom of CHD. Angina is a pain that comes from the heart. This can be caused by a build up of fatty deposit or a collapsed arterial wall, resulting in the blood having difficulties to flow freely and quickly to the heart.The signs for angina are; chest pains, pins and needles down the left arm, up to the neck, jaw ad into the back. Pail skin, blue lips and nauseas are also some of the signs that can be recognised for angina. Heart attack is o ne of the most common of the number of heart conditions. It occurs when there is a blockage in one of the coronary arteries that supple the heart muscles with oxygenated blood. If part of the does not receive oxygenated blood, the heart muscles will die or not function correctly, which reduces the amount of blood that is pumping around the body.The signs for a heart attack are very similar to angina but occur without warning. Heart failure is another symptom of CHD, heart failure means that your heart is about to stop working. It happens when your heart is having trouble pumping enough blood around the body. It usually strikes if the heart muscles have become too weak to work correctly. CHD is a big killer, with 2. 6 million people living with the condition in the UK. There are 1 in 5 men and 1 in 7 women suffering from coronary heart disease. The chances of getting this disease increase as you get older.The reason for this is because the older you get the more fatty substances can build up in your coronary arteries. The disorder physically affects the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s systemsÃ¢â¬â¢ when the blood supply to the heart is blocked or interrupted by a build-up of fatty substances in the coronary arteries. Over time the walls of the arteries can become clogged up with fatty deposits causing the heart to work harder and when exercising the symptoms will be lack of breathe increased heart rate and increased pain in left arm. The first signs are face becomes red the body starts to sweat before becoming cold and pail as the blood flow weakens.Factors that can affect the development of the disorder Coronary heart disease begins through the damage to the inner wall of a coronary artery. The damage can be caused by many things, some include; smoking, a diet high in cholesterol and diabetes. Gender can also affect the development of the disorder. Men are more commonly at a greater risk of developing CHD than women. Age is another big factor, as your age increases so does yo ur risk of damaged and narrowed arteries due to the amount of Cholesterol deposited on the walls of the arteries.As you get older the more chance you have of getting the disease, this is because the older you are the weaker your coronary arteries get. High blood pressure can significantly speed up the process of hardening and thickening of the arteries, narrowing the path through which blood can flow around the body. If there is a family history of heart disease, it is seen to be a higher risk that you will develop the disease. If your close relatives have developed heart disease, you are seen to be at a high risk of you developing CHD at a later stage in life. How is CHD diagnosed?You can diagnose Coronary heart disease by going through many procedures. A person may have to have an Electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram (Echo), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)Ã scan, coronary angiography, radionuclide tests, x-rays, or blood tests. Heart An ECG records the rhythm and electrical activity in the heart. Lots of electrodes are placed on the arms, legs, and chest. The electrodes that are connected to the patient are also connected to a machine to record each heart beat. Even if an abnormal reading is taken, it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean everything is ok.And a normal reading doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean everything is ok. ECGÃ¢â¬â¢s are not reliable on their own, many more tests/ procedures have to talk place to correctly diagnose the patient with CHD. Echocardiograms Echocardiograms are similar to ultrasound scans which are used during pregnancy. It uses sound waves to produce an image of the heart. An echocardiogram can find and work out the structure, thickness and the movement of the valves in the heart. During an Echo the patient is asked to take their top off and lay on a bed. A small piece of equipment, called a transducer, is moved over the chest.A gel that works as a lubricant is put onto your skin to assist the transducer to move along the skin effortlessly, this wil l make sure that contact is kept at all times with the skin. A coronary angiography provides information about the hearts blood pressure and functioning. This procedure can identify whether the coronary arteries are blocked or narrowing. A tube/camera is passed through an artery in the groin or arm; it is guided using x-rays up to the heart. A coronary angiogram is a safe procedure, but there are some small side affect.You may feel a slightly strange sensation when the dye is put down the catheter, a small amount of bleeding when the catheter is removed, a bruise in your groin or arm. X-rays are used to guide tubes or cameras through the body. It is used to look at the heart, lungs, and chest walls. They can also be used to rule out any other conditions that might be causing the weaknesses. Blood tests such as cholesterol, cardiac enzyme and thyroid function testing are three blood tests that are used to diagnose a person with CHD.They are also used to rule out other conditions that may be similar to CHD symptoms. Radionuclide testing indicates how strongly the heart pumps and it shows the flow of blood in the heart. There is a small amount of radioactive substances are injected into the blood and a camera is placed over the chest which picks up radioactive signals. MRI scans produce detailed pictures of the heart; the picture is produced by the patient lying down on a bed like table and taken through a tunnel which scans the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s heart. TreatmentsCoronary heart disease is treated in a number of ways. The intensity of the treatment depends on the seriousness of the disease. For many people, CHD is managed with lifestyle changes and medication. Other with severe CHD many need to undergo surgery. When a person develops CHD, it requires lifelong management. Lifestyle changes that could be made Reducing the chances of developing CHD is within the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s control. Their doctor can help reduce the chances by the use of drugs. The biggest redu ction comes from the individual choice of changing their lifestyle.The lifestyle changes are the most important way of reducing the chances of developing CHD, or preventing the disease from getting worse. People should eat healthy and lower fat intake if they are going to reduce the risk. Participating in regular exercise can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. It is recommended that you take part in at least 30 minutes of exercise 3-5 times week. Exercise lowers you blood pressure, also lowers bad cholesterol, and increases good cholesterol. Exercising strengthens the heart and increase the circulation of blood around the body.Smoking increases the risk of you developing CHD. As you inhale the tobacco smoke it causes many instant reactions in the heart and blood vessels. You heart rate increases to as much as 30% in the first 10 minutes of smoking. Smoking increases blood pressure, blood vessels constrict (narrow), which makes the heart have to work harder to circulate oxyge n around the body. Stopping smoking helps reduce the risk of developing CHD because after three years of not smoking, the risk of heart disease is the as a non-smoker. What medication can be used?Also taking a low dosage of aspirin a day can reduce the risk of CHD will prevent blood clots but they donÃ¢â¬â¢t really help the stomach, as they are bad for the stomach. Angiotensin- converting enzymes (ACE) inhibitors are what you would take to treat high blood pressure. They stop the progression of CHD and they block the hormone that causes the blood vessels to narrow and stop the heart working correctly. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used to lower the blood pressure. Calcium channel blockers, these are also used to lower blood pressure by relaxing the muscles that are in the walls of the arteries.Thiazide diuretics are used to reduce the amount of water in the blood. Beta blockers are used to prevent angina and treat high blood pressure. They slow down the heart, which will decrease the requirement for oxygen. This will improve the blood flow to the heart. Statins are the medication that lowers cholesterol levels. They slow down the process of CHD and they also reduce the likelihood of having a heart attack. Nitrates are also used to widen the blood vessels, they relax them, and this will let more blood pass through them. What types of surgery are used to treat CHD?Surgery may be recommended for patients who continue to have frequent angina attacks, even with the use of medications, or people who are found to have serious blockages in their coronary arteries. The patient has to be referred to the hospital by a doctor. The patient should not refer themselves to the hospital as this could be dangerous as it could cause stress and anxiety. Coronary angioplasty surgery may be a procedure that could be planned for the patient, but this could also be an emergency procedure. A coronary angiogram will determine if the treatment is suitable for the patient.A c oronary angioplasty is a procedure to open up any narrowed arteries so that blood can flow more easily to your heart. During the procedure, the doctor will inflate a small balloon in the artery that is affected. The doctor may insert a stent to keep your artery. A coronary angioplasty is sometimes called balloon angioplasty. You may have a coronary angioplasty to treat angina or after you have had a heart attack. Coronary angioplasty Some people may have an angioplasty straight after an angiogram. An angiogram is a test that allows your doctor to take an X-ray of your coronary arteries and find any narrowed areas.In a coronary artery bypass operation, a blood vessel, usually taken from the leg or chest, is grafted onto the blocked artery, bypassing the blocked area. If more than one artery is blocked, a bypass can be done on each. This procedure will then mean the blood will be able to go around the obstruction to supply the heart with enough blood to relieve the chest pain that may be caused with the blocked artery. Bypass surgery relieves symptoms of CHD but does not cure it. Usually you will need to make a number of changes in your lifestyle after the operation.If your normal lifestyle includes smoking, a high-fat diet, or no exercise, changes are advised. Making the changes will reduce the chances of you getting CHD as bad as you did before you had the surgery. A heart transplant is only preformed when the heart is severely damaged and medication does not work or after heart failure. Heart transplant is surgery to remove the personÃ¢â¬â¢s diseased heart and replaced with a healthy heart from a donor. Your doctor may recommend a heart transplant if your heart is so damaged or weak that it can't pump enough blood to meet your body's needs.This condition is called heart failure. A heart transplant is a life saving procedure. Recovering from CHD If you have heart surgery, a member of the cardiac rehabilitation team may visit you in hospital to give you infor mation about your condition and how you can recover from the surgery that you have undertook. This care will usually continue after you have left hospital. For the couple of weeks after your surgery, a member of the cardiac rehabilitation team may visit you at home to check on your progress and see if you are recovering.What happens in cardiac rehabilitation programmes canÃ vary throughout different areas, most cover exercise, education and relaxation and emotional support. Once the rehabilitation programme has been completed, it is important the patient continues with regular exercise and that they lead a healthy lifestyle. This will help to protect your heart and reduce the risk of further problems with the heart. CrohnÃ¢â¬â¢s disease CrohnÃ¢â¬â¢s disease is a long term condition that cannot be cured. Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease which causes stomach pains, diarrhoea, and can also lead to weight loss.CrohnÃ¢â¬â¢s disease affects the lower part of the s mall intestine, also known as the ileum. It also affects the large intestine, the colon. It can affect any part of the digestive system. The affected areas become red and swollen, sometimes causing ulcers on the affected areas. As the ulcers heal, the scar tissue makes the intestine narrow, due to this it leads to an obstruction in the digestive system. There is no cure for this disease, but the symptoms can be prevented. Signs ; symptoms There are many symptoms for CrohnÃ¢â¬â¢s disease, but they can vary depending on where the disease is located in the digestive system.Common symptoms of CrohnÃ¢â¬â¢s disease are; abdominal pain, the pain is normally found in the lower right side, diarrhoea, loss of appetite this leads to weight loss, rectal bleeding, fever, nausea and vomiting, Skin lesions and joint pain. Causes There is no exact cause of CrohnÃ¢â¬â¢s disease and it is unknown what it is caused by, it is linked to a problem with the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s immune system response. Norm ally the immune system helps protect the body, but with Crohn's disease the immune system can't tell the difference between the normal body tissue and foreign bodies.The result of this is an overactive immune response that leads to chronic inflammation. People with Crohn's disease never get rid of the inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Crohn's disease may occur in any area of the digestive tract. The inflammation causes the inner wall to become thick. There are different types of Crohn's disease, depending on the part of the digestive system that is affected. Crohn's disease may infect the small intestine, the large intestine, the rectum, or the mouth.A person's genes and environmental factors are seen to play a role in the development of Crohn's disease. The body may react excessively to normal bacteria in the intestines. The disease may occur at any age, but it usually occurs in people between ages 15 Ã¢â¬â 35. There is a greater chance of you developing this disease i f there is a family history of Crohn's disease, you come from a smoking background or you smoke. Previous infections may trigger CrohnÃ¢â¬â¢s disease, as a past infection can trigger an abnormal response from the immune system. Complication that can occurCrohnÃ¢â¬â¢s disease can cause many different kinds of complications, such as, blockages or obstructions in the intestines are the most common complication that can occur. Malnutrition can also be a complication; this is when a personÃ¢â¬â¢s diet does not contain enough nutrients to meet the demands of their body. There is also an increased risk that CrohnÃ¢â¬â¢s disease suffers will develop colorectal cancer (bowel cancer). Diagnosis The patient has to go through many tests to be able to be diagnosed with CrohnÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. If one test was carried out, it wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be reliable because other diseases or problems may arise when taking the test.Blood test can be carried out, this can show if there is any inflammatio n, infection and anaemia. Anaemia is a when a person has an iron deficiency, meaning if they have too much or too little iron in their blood. Stool sample, which can be examined for blood, mucus and parasites, such as round worm. A colonoscopy is when Colonoscopy the doctor inserts a long, flexible tube called a colonoscope, into the anus and slowly guides it through the rectum and into the colon. The colonoscope inflates the large intestine with carbon dioxide gas; this gives the doctor a better view.A small camera that is on the end of the colonoscope sends a video image from inside the large intestine to a computer screen; this allows the doctor to carefully examine the intestines. Treatments Crohn's disease is a condition that cannot be cured, but appropriate treatment can help control the inflammation and manage the symptoms. Diet and nutrition management can help patients control their symptoms and improve their nutritional levels. The patient can take many types of medication to resolve symptoms and prevent disease developing any thither.Some medications don't work for everyone with Crohn's disease. Most patients with severe Crohn's disease eventually need surgery when medications and diet and lifestyle changes no longer help. Medication The purpose of the medication that is prescribed by the doctor is to reduce the inflammation that activates the signs and symptoms that occur. They are also to improve the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s long term life, by reducing and limiting the complications that could occur. The drugs that the patient could be given are; Anti-inflammatory drugs: these drugs are often what are given to the patient first.Sulfasalazine (Azulfidine): this drug isn't always effective for treating Crohn's disease. It may help to reduce the inflammation of Crohn's disease that affects the colon. This medication has many side effects, including tiredness, vomiting, heartburn and headache. Mesalamine (Asacol, Rowasa): this medication is normally taken whe n the disease is affecting the large intestine, as it is ineffective for the disease that is effecting the small intestine. This medication has some side effects include tiredness, vomiting, heartburn, diarrhoea and headache. Corticosteroids can help reduce inflammation anywhere in your body.The doctor will not give the patient this medication if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to as it has numerous side effects, including a puffy face, excessive facial hair, night sweats, sleeplessness and hyperactivity. Some more serious side effects include high blood pressure, diabetes and osteoporosis, which is also known as brittle bones, causing fractures in bones. If the medication is taken by younger people it can lead to underdeveloped growth. They only use this medication if the symptoms and the inflammation are moderate to severe. They will only use it none of the other medications respond. Corticosteroids are not for long-term use.But, they can be used for around three to four months. Immune sys tem suppressors are drugs that also reduce inflammation; they target the immune system rather than directly targeting and treating the inflamed area. This drug is sometimes used combined with other drugs such as a combination of Sulfasalazine and Mesalamine has been shown to work better than just taking the drugs alone. Surgery Surgical procedures include strictureplasty, resection, colectomy, and proctocolectomy. During a strictureplasty, the surgeon guides an inflated balloon attached to a catheter through the intestine.If the balloon encounters a restricted area, it may indicate there is a narrowing in the intestine. To open up the blocked area, a cut is made lengthwise along the intestine. The cut is then sewn up in the opposite direction, which has the overall effect of widening the obstructed area without removing any organs. If there is more than one obstructed area it may be treated during one surgery. Resection is where they take part of the infected organ away from the bod y. A colectomy is a procedure that sees the colon being removed from the body, either partially or fully.Proctocolectomy is the surgical removal of the rectum and all or part of the colon. Bibliography Website | What is it for| http://www. nhs. uk/Conditions/Coronary-heart-disease/Pages/Diagnosis. aspx| Coronary heart disease Ã¢â¬â DiagnosisÃ | http://www. nhs. uk/Conditions/Coronary-heart-disease/Pages/Symptoms. aspx| Coronary heart disease Ã¢â¬â SymptomsÃ | http://www. nhs. uk/NHSEngland/NSF/Pages/Coronaryheartdisease. aspx| Coronary heart disease- treatments Ã | http://pennstatehershey. adam. com/content. aspx? productId=10;pid=10;gid=000103| CrohnÃ¢â¬â¢s disease|
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Blacks in the Revolutionary War1 Blacks in the Revolutionary War African American Studies Latasha Gating September 20, 2012 LaChanda K. Clemons Blacks in the Revolutionary War2 Looking back at the history of the United States, it is evident that the Revolutionary War impacted the country a great deal. It was the first war fought with slaves thanks to Lord DunmoreÃ¢â¬â¢s controversial proclamation. Historian Benjamin Quarles stated Ã¢â¬Å"The Negros role in the Revolutionary War can be best understood by realizing his major loyalty was not to a place nor to a people but to a principle. There were black loyalists, black sailors, black patriots and black regiments who fought and died in the name of Independence. It has been estimated that over 5,000 African Americans served as soldiers for the Continental army and more than 20,000 fought for the British cause. Slavery in Colonial America is noted to have begun in 1619 with the arrival of 20 African slaves on the Dutch ship named Man-o f-war. The slaves made up over half the population in the colonies although they were seen more so as property instead of people. In 1776, there were about 500,000 African American men, women and children slaves. Everyone had a reason for taking part in the war. There were factors that motivated the blacks to take part in such a battle as well. The text mentions that when it came to fighting between the Patriots on one side and their Loyalist American allies on the other, African Americans joined the side that offered freedom. Having that choice of gaining freedom in exchange for serving in the military was indeed motivation. Other motives for blacks were the Blacks in the Revolutionary War3 desire for adventure, belief in the justice and the goals of the revolution and the possibility of receiving a bounty. The Continental navy and The Royal Navy signed blacks into the navy because of the manpower shortages at sea. Some blacks had been captured from the royal navy and used by the Patriots on their vessels. They also served as seamen on British vessel. Slaves and free slaves served as seaman. Because so many Patriot leaders resisted employing black troops, by mid-1775, the British had taken the initiative in recruiting African Americans. Revolutionary leaders feared using blacks in the arm forces. They were afraid that the slaves who were armed would uprise against them. In May 1775 the Massachusetts Committee of Safety put a stop to enlisting slaves in the armies of the colony. However, this did not apply to the blacks who were already serving in the army. 1775-1783 the navy recruits freed black slaves and runaway slaves. Lord Dunmore, born John Murray, was the last Royal Governor of Virginia. Because he was short of men, Dunmore issued a proclamation stating that all able bodied men to assist him in the defense of the colony, including the slaves of rebels. He promised freedom to the blacks who served. After doing so in a month he had 800 soldiers. The purpose of his Proclamation was to declare martial law and to encourage slaves of rebels in Virginia to leave their masters and support the loyalist cause Ã¢â¬Å"All indentured servants, Negroes, or othersÃ¢â¬ ¦free that are able Blacks in the Revolutionary War4 and willing to bear armsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Such an act outrage Virginians. Those that took Dunmore up on his word range between 800 and 2,000. The Virginia Congress replied to his Proclamation with the DunmoreÃ¢â¬â¢s wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t as successful as his plan out, the number of his soldiers decreased due to smallpox outbreaks. DunmoreÃ¢â¬â¢s Proclamation was the first mass emancipation of slaves in American history. After the war ended, over 5,000 blacks left for Jamaica or St. Augustine because they were the property of loyalist that they would never gain their freedom from slavery. By 1786, many were back in bondage. There were those who were PatriotsÃ¢â¬â¢ slaves but sided with the British were promised their freedom and was granted such. Many black patriots found that the post war military held no rewards for them. So many men served in the armed forces which meant that their wives were left behind and had to take on their husband roles. Their lives changed a great deal during the Revolutionary War. The women, who could, serve the Colonial military forces and interacted with the male soldiers in camp. They were usually the wives and daughters of the male soldiers. The cooked, did laundry and cared for those that were sick. There also some who fought in the military battles: Margaret Cochran Corbin and Captain Molly. MolloyÃ¢â¬â¢s husband had taught her how to load and fire cannons. Black women, many of whom were slaves, served both Americans and the British in the capacity of nurses, laundresses and cooks. Blacks in the Revolutionary War5 Many African American soldiers fought and died for the sake of the Revolutionary War. The war ended in 1783, slavery was dying in the North and declining in Chesapeake. What was truly the purpose of Blacks fighting if they did not attain freedom at the end of the war? Were the lives lost beneficially to the slaves or was it just a gimmick to get blacks to stand in stops where white soldiers have already died in. Blacks in the Revolutionary War6 Bibliography Georgii, Colette. May 30, 2007. Slavery in Colonial America. www. helium. com/items/365359-Colonial-Early- Gabriel, Brian. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s roles and lives in the revolutionary war. http://www. ehow. com/) (http://blackloyalist. com/canadiandigitalcollection/story/revolution/dunmore. htm) Halpern, Rick (2002). Slavery and Emancipation. Blackwell Publishing. Pp. 90-91 Harold, Stanley, Hine, W. C. , Hine, D. C. The African American Odyssey: Volume 1, 5th Edition. Prentice Hall. 2011. Pearson Education, Inc. . (Scribner, Robert L. (1983). Revolutionary Virginia, the Road to Independence. University of Virginia Press. Pp. xxiv. ) Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â [ 2 ]. Scribner, Robert L. (1983). Revolutionary Virginia, the Road to Independence. University of Virginia Press. Pp. xxiv [ 3 ]. Halpern, Rick (2002). Slavery and Emancipation. Blackwell Publishing. Pp. 90-91 [ 4 ]. Harold, Stanley, Hine, W. C. , Hine, D. C. The African American Odyssey: Volume 1, 5th Edition. Prentice Hall. 2011. Pearson Education, Inc. [ 6 ]. Gabriel, Brian. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s roles and lives in the revolutionary war. http://www. ehow. com/)
Tuesday, October 22, 2019
Best Analysis The American Dream in The Great Gatsby SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips The Great Gatsby is a tragic love story on the surface, but it's most commonly understood as a pessimistic critique of the American Dream. In the novel, Jay Gatsby overcomes his poor past to gain an incredible amount of money and a limited amount of social cache in 1920s NYC, only to be rejected by the "old money" crowd. He then gets killed after being tangled up with them. Through Gatsby's life, as well as that of the Wilsons', Fitzgerald critiques the idea that America is a meritocracy where anyone can rise to the top with enough hard work. We will explore how this theme plays out in the plot, briefly analyze some key quotes about it, as well as do some character analysis and broader analysis of topics surrounding the American Dream in The Great Gatsby. Roadmap What is the American Dream?The American Dream in the Great Gatsby plotKey American Dream quotesAnalyzing characters via the American DreamCommon discussion and essay topics Quick Note on Our Citations Our citation format in this guide is (chapter.paragraph). We're using this system since there are many editions of Gatsby, so using page numbers would only work for students with our copy of the book. To find a quotation we cite via chapter and paragraph in your book, you can either eyeball it (Paragraph 1-50: beginning of chapter; 50-100: middle of chapter; 100-on: end of chapter), or use the search function if you're using an online or eReader version of the text. What Exactly Is "The American Dream"? The American Dream is the belief that anyone, regardless of race, class, gender, or nationality, can be successful in America (read: rich) if they just work hard enough. The American Dream thus presents a pretty rosy view of American society that ignores problems like systemic racism and misogyny, xenophobia, tax evasion or state tax avoidance, and income inequality. It also presumes a myth of class equality, when the reality is America has a pretty well-developed class hierarchy. The 1920s in particular was a pretty tumultuous time due to increased immigration (and the accompanying xenophobia), changing women's roles (spurred by the right to vote, which was won in 1919), and extraordinary income inequality. The country was also in the midst of an economic boom, which fueled the belief that anyone could "strike it rich" on Wall Street. However, this rapid economic growth was built on a bubble which popped in 1929. The Great Gatsby was published in 1925, well before the crash, but through its wry descriptions of the ultra-wealthy, it seems to somehow predict that the fantastic wealth on display in 1920s New York was just as ephemeral as one of Gatsby's parties. In any case, the novel, just by being set in the 1920s, is unlikely to present an optimistic view of the American Dream, or at least a version of the dream that's inclusive to all genders, ethnicities, and incomes. With that background in mind, let's jump into the plot! The American Dream in The Great Gatsby Chapter 1 places us in a particular year- 1922- and gives us some background about WWI. This is relevant, since the 1920s is presented as a time of hollow decadence among the wealthy, as evidenced especially by the parties in Chapters 2 and 3. And as we mentioned above, the 1920s were a particularly tense time in America. We also meet George and Myrtle Wilson in Chapter 2, both working class people who are working to improve their lot in life, George through his work, and Myrtle through her affair with Tom Buchanan. We learn about Gatsby's goal in Chapter 4: to win Daisy back. Despite everything he owns, including fantastic amounts of money and an over-the-top mansion, for Gatsby, Daisy is the ultimate status symbol. So in Chapter 5, when Daisy and Gatsby reunite and begin an affair, it seems like Gatsby could, in fact, achieve his goal. In Chapter 6, we learn about Gatsby's less-than-wealthy past, which not only makes him look like the star of a rags-to-riches story, it makes Gatsby himself seem like someone in pursuit of the American Dream, and for him the personification of that dream is Daisy. However, in Chapters 7 and 8, everything comes crashing down: Daisy refuses to leave Tom, Myrtle is killed, and George breaks down and kills Gatsby and then himself, leaving all of the "strivers" dead and the old money crowd safe. Furthermore, we learn in those last chapters that Gatsby didn't even achieve all his wealth through hard work, like the American Dream would stipulate- instead, he earned his money through crime. (He did work hard and honestly under Dan Cody, but lost Dan Cody's inheritance to his ex-wife.) In short, things do not turn out well for our dreamers in the novel! Thus, the novel ends with Nick's sad meditation on the lost promise of the American Dream. You can read a detailed analysis of these last lines in our summary of the novel's ending. This novel is just one very large burst bubble. Key American Dream Quotes In this section we analyze some of the most important quotes that relate to the American Dream in the book. But I didn't call to him for he gave a sudden intimation that he was content to be alonehe stretched out his arms toward the dark water in a curious way, and far as I was from him I could have sworn he was trembling. Involuntarily I glanced seawardand distinguished nothing except a single green light, minute and far away, that might have been the end of a dock. (1.152) In our first glimpse of Jay Gatsby, we see him reaching towards something far off, something in sight but definitely out of reach. This famous image of the green light is often understood as part of The Great Gatsby's meditation on The American Dream- the idea that people are always reaching towards something greater than themselves that is just out of reach. You can read more about this in our post all about the green light. The fact that this yearning image is our introduction to Gatsby foreshadows his unhappy end and also marks him as a dreamer, rather than people like Tom or Daisy who were born with money and don't need to strive for anything so far off. Over the great bridge, with the sunlight through the girders making a constant flicker upon the moving cars, with the city rising up across the river in white heaps and sugar lumps all built with a wish out of non-olfactory money. The city seen from the Queensboro Bridge is always the city seen for the first time, in its first wild promise of all the mystery and the beauty in the world. A dead man passed us in a hearse heaped with blooms, followed by two carriages with drawn blinds and by more cheerful carriages for friends. The friends looked out at us with the tragic eyes and short upper lips of south-eastern Europe, and I was glad that the sight of Gatsby's splendid car was included in their somber holiday. As we crossed Blackwell's Island a limousine passed us, driven by a white chauffeur, in which sat three modish Negroes, two bucks and a girl. I laughed aloud as the yolks of their eyeballs rolled toward us in haughty rivalry. "Anything can happen now that we've slid over this bridge," I thought; "anything at all. . . ." Even Gatsby could happen, without any particular wonder. (4.55-8) Early in the novel, we get this mostly optimistic illustration of the American Dream- we see people of different races and nationalities racing towards NYC, a city of unfathomable possibility. This moment has all the classic elements of the American Dream- economic possibility, racial and religious diversity, a carefree attitude. At this moment, it does feel like "anything can happen," even a happy ending. However, this rosy view eventually gets undermined by the tragic events later in the novel. And even at this point, Nick's condescension towards the people in the other cars reinforces America's racial hierarchy that disrupts the idea of the American Dream. There is even a little competition at play, a "haughty rivalry" at play between Gatsby's car and the one bearing the "modish Negroes." Nick "laughs aloud" at this moment, suggesting he thinks it's amusing that the passengers in this other car see them as equals, or even rivals to be bested. In other words, he seems to firmly believe in the racial hierarchy Tom defends in Chapter 1, even if it doesn't admit it honestly. His heart beat faster and faster as Daisy's white face came up to his own. He knew that when he kissed this girl, and forever wed his unutterable visions to her perishable breath, his mind would never romp again like the mind of God. So he waited, listening for a moment longer to the tuning fork that had been struck upon a star. Then he kissed her. At his lips' touch she blossomed for him like a flower and the incarnation was complete. (6.134) This moment explicitly ties Daisy to all of Gatsby's larger dreams for a better life- to his American Dream. This sets the stage for the novel's tragic ending, since Daisy cannot hold up under the weight of the dream Gatsby projects onto her. Instead, she stays with Tom Buchanan, despite her feelings for Gatsby. Thus when Gatsby fails to win over Daisy, he also fails to achieve his version of the American Dream. This is why so many people read the novel as a somber or pessimistic take on the American Dream, rather than an optimistic one. ...as the moon rose higher the inessential houses began to melt away until gradually I became aware of the old island here that flowered once for Dutch sailors' eyesa fresh, green breast of the new world. Its vanished trees, the trees that had made way for Gatsby's house, had once pandered in whispers to the last and greatest of all human dreams; for a transitory enchanted moment man must have held his breath in the presence of this continent, compelled into an aesthetic contemplation he neither understood nor desired, face to face for the last time in history with something commensurate to his capacity for wonder. And as I sat there brooding on the old, unknown world, I thought of Gatsby's wonder when he first picked out the green light at the end of Daisy's dock. He had come a long way to this blue lawn and his dream must have seemed so close that he could hardly fail to grasp it. He did not know that it was already behind him, somewhere back in that vast obscurity beyond the city, where the dark fields of the republic rolled on under the night." (9.151-152) The closing pages of the novel reflect at length on the American Dream, in an attitude that seems simultaneously mournful, appreciative, and pessimistic. It also ties back to our first glimpse of Gatsby, reaching out over the water towards the Buchanan's green light. Nick notes that Gatsby's dream was "already behind him" then (or in other words, it was impossible to attain). But still, he finds something to admire in how Gatsby still hoped for a better life, and constantly reached out toward that brighter future. For a full consideration of these last lines and what they could mean, see our analysis of the novel's ending. Want to get better grades and test scores? We can help. PrepScholar Tutors is the world's best tutoring service. We combine world-class expert tutors with our proprietary teaching techniques. Our students have gotten A's on thousands of classes, perfect 5's on AP tests, and ludicrously high SAT Subject Test scores. Whether you need help with science, math, English, social science, or more, we've got you covered. Get better grades today with PrepScholar Tutors. Analyzing Characters Through the American Dream An analysis of the characters in terms of the American Dream usually leads to a pretty cynical take on the American Dream. Most character analysis centered on the American Dream will necessarily focus on Gatsby, George, or Myrtle (the true strivers in the novel), though as we'll discuss below, the Buchanans can also provide some interesting layers of discussion. For character analysis that incorporates the American Dream, carefully consider your chosen character's motivations and desires, and how the novel does (or doesn't!) provide glimpses of the dream's fulfillment for them. Gatsby Gatsby himself is obviously the best candidate for writing about the American Dream- he comes from humble roots (he's the son of poor farmers from North Dakota) and rises to be notoriously wealthy, only for everything to slip away from him in the end. Many people also incorporate Daisy into their analyses as the physical representation of Gatsby's dream. However, definitely consider the fact that in the traditional American Dream, people achieve their goals through honest hard work, but in Gatsby's case, he very quickly acquires a large amount of money through crime. Gatsby does attempt the hard work approach, through his years of service to Dan Cody, but that doesn't work out since Cody's ex-wife ends up with the entire inheritance. So instead he turns to crime, and only then does he manage to achieve his desired wealth. So while Gatsby's story arc resembles a traditional rags-to-riches tale, the fact that he gained his money immorally complicates the idea that he is a perfect avatar for the American Dream. Furthermore, his success obviously doesn't last- he still pines for Daisy and loses everything in his attempt to get her back. In other words, Gatsby's huge dreams, all precariously wedded to Daisy ("He knew that when he kissed this girl, and forever wed his unutterable visions to her perishable breath, his mind would never romp again like the mind of God" (6.134)) are as flimsy and flight as Daisy herself. George and Myrtle Wilson This couple also represents people aiming at the dream- George owns his own shop and is doing his best to get business, though is increasingly worn down by the harsh demands of his life, while Myrtle chases after wealth and status through an affair with Tom. Both are disempowered due to the lack of money at their own disposal- Myrtle certainly has access to some of the "finer things" through Tom but has to deal with his abuse, while George is unable to leave his current life and move West since he doesn't have the funds available. He even has to make himself servile to Tom in an attempt to get Tom to sell his car, a fact that could even cause him to overlook the evidence of his wife's affair. So neither character is on the upward trajectory that the American Dream promises, at least during the novel. In the end, everything goes horribly wrong for both George and Myrtle, suggesting that in this world, it's dangerous to strive for more than you're given. George and Myrtle's deadly fates, along with Gatsby's, help illustrate the novel's pessimistic attitude toward the American Dream. After all, how unfair is it that the couple working to improve their position in society (George and Myrtle) both end up dead, while Tom, who dragged Myrtle into an increasingly dangerous situation, and Daisy, who killed her, don't face any consequences? And on top of that they are fabulously wealthy? The American Dream certainly is not alive and well for the poor Wilsons. Tom and Daisy as Antagonists to the American Dream We've talked quite a bit already about Gatsby, George, and Myrtle- the three characters who come from humble roots and try to climb the ranks in 1920s New York. But what about the other major characters, especially the ones born with money? What is their relationship to the American Dream? Specifically, Tom and Daisy have old money, and thus they don't need the American Dream, since they were born with America already at their feet. Perhaps because of this, they seem to directly antagonize the dream- Daisy by refusing Gatsby, and Tom by helping to drag the Wilsons into tragedy. This is especially interesting because unlike Gatsby, Myrtle, and George, who actively hope and dream of a better life, Daisy and Tom are described as bored and "careless," and end up instigating a large amount of tragedy through their own recklessness. In other words, income inequality and the vastly different starts in life the characters have strongly affected their outcomes. The way they choose to live their lives, their morality (or lack thereof), and how much they dream doesn't seem to matter. This, of course, is tragic and antithetical to the idea of the American Dream, which claims that class should be irrelevant and anyone can rise to the top. Daisy as a Personification of the American Dream As we discuss in our post on money and materialism in The Great Gatsby, Daisy's voice is explicitly tied to money by Gatsby: "Her voice is full of money," he said suddenly. That was it. I'd never understood before. It was full of moneythat was the inexhaustible charm that rose and fell in it, the jingle of it, the cymbals' song of it. . . . High in a white palace the king's daughter, the golden girl. . . . (7.105-6) If Daisy's voice promises money, and the American Dream is explicitly linked to wealth, it's not hard to argue that Daisy herself- along with the green light at the end of her dock- stands in for the American Dream. In fact, as Nick goes on to describe Daisy as "High in a white palace the king's daughter, the golden girl," he also seems to literally describe Daisy as a prize, much like the princess at the end of a fairy tale (or even Princess Peach at the end of a Mario game!). But Daisy, of course, is only human- flawed, flighty, and ultimately unable to embody the huge fantasy Gatsby projects onto her. So this, in turn, means that the American Dream itself is just a fantasy, a concept too flimsy to actually hold weight, especially in the fast-paced, dog-eat-dog world of 1920s America. Furthermore, you should definitely consider the tension between the fact that Daisy represents Gatsby's ultimate goal, but at the same time (as we discussed above), her actual life is the opposite of the American Dream: she is born with money and privilege, likely dies with it all intact, and there are no consequences to how she chooses to live her life in between. Can Female Characters Achieve the American Dream? Finally, it's interesting to compare and contrast some of the female characters using the lens of the American Dream. Let's start with Daisy, who is unhappy in her marriage and, despite a brief attempt to leave it, remains with Tom, unwilling to give up the status and security their marriage provides. At first, it may seem like Daisy doesn't dream at all, so of course she ends up unhappy. But consider the fact that Daisy was already born into the highest level of American society. The expectation placed on her, as a wealthy woman, was never to pursue something greater, but simply to maintain her status. She did that by marrying Tom, and it's understandable why she wouldn't risk the uncertainty and loss of status that would come through divorce and marriage to a bootlegger. Again, Daisy seems to typify the "anti-American" dream, in that she was born into a kind of aristocracy and simply has to maintain her position, not fight for something better. In contrast, Myrtle, aside from Gatsby, seems to be the most ambitiously in pursuit of getting more than she was given in life. She parlays her affair with Tom into an apartment, nice clothes, and parties, and seems to revel in her newfound status. But of course, she is knocked down the hardest, killed for her involvement with the Buchanans, and specifically for wrongfully assuming she had value to them. Considering that Gatsby did have a chance to leave New York and distance himself from the unfolding tragedy, but Myrtle was the first to be killed, you could argue the novel presents an even bleaker view of the American Dream where women are concerned. Even Jordan Baker, who seems to be living out a kind of dream by playing golf and being relatively independent, is tied to her family's money and insulated from consequences by it, making her a pretty poor representation of the dream. And of course, since her end game also seems to be marriage, she doesn't push the boundaries of women's roles as far as she might wish. So while the women all push the boundaries of society's expectations of them in certain ways, they either fall in line or are killed, which definitely undermines the rosy of idea that anyone, regardless of gender, can make it in America. The American Dream as shown in Gatsby becomes even more pessimistic through the lens of the female characters. Focusing the lens on the women is predictably depressing. Common Essay Questions/Discussion Topics Now let's work through some of the more frequently brought up subjects for discussion. #1: Was Gatsby's dream worth it? Was all the work, time, and patience worth it for him? Like me, you might immediately think "of course it wasn't worth it! Gatsby lost everything, not to mention the Wilsons got caught up in the tragedy and ended up dead!" So if you want to make the more obvious "the dream wasn't worth it" argument, you could point to the unraveling that happens at the end of the novel (including the deaths of Myrtle, Gatsby and George) and how all Gatsby's achievements are for nothing, as evidenced by the sparse attendance of his funeral. However, you could definitely take the less obvious route and argue that Gatsby's dream was worth it, despite the tragic end. First of all, consider Jay's unique characterization in the story: "He was a son of Goda phrase which, if it means anything, means just thatand he must be about His Father's Business, the service of a vast, vulgar and meretricious beauty" (6.7). In other words, Gatsby has a larger-than-life persona and he never would have been content to remain in North Dakota to be poor farmers like his parents. Even if he ends up living a shorter life, he certainly lived a full one full of adventure. His dreams of wealth and status took him all over the world on Dan Cody's yacht, to Louisville where he met and fell in love with Daisy, to the battlefields of WWI, to the halls of Oxford University, and then to the fast-paced world of Manhattan in the early 1920s, when he earned a fortune as a bootlegger. In fact, it seems Jay lived several lives in the space of just half a normal lifespan. In short, to argue that Gatsby's dream was worth it, you should point to his larger-than-life conception of himself and the fact that he could have only sought happiness through striving for something greater than himself, even if that ended up being deadly in the end. #2: In the Langston Hughes poem "A Dream Deferred," Hughes asks questions about what happens to postponed dreams. How does Fitzgerald examine this issue of deferred dreams? What do you think are the effects of postponing our dreams? How can you apply this lesson to your own life? If you're thinking about "deferred dreams" in The Great Gatsby, the big one is obviously Gatsby's deferred dream for Daisy- nearly five years pass between his initial infatuation and his attempt in the novel to win her back, an attempt that obviously backfires. You can examine various aspects of Gatsby's dream- the flashbacks to his first memories of Daisy in Chapter 8, the moment when they reunite in Chapter 5, or the disastrous consequences of the confrontation of Chapter 7- to illustrate Gatsby's deferred dream. You could also look at George Wilson's postponed dream of going West, or Myrtle's dream of marrying a wealthy man of "breeding"- George never gets the funds to go West, and is instead mired in the Valley of Ashes, while Myrtle's attempt to achieve her dream after 12 years of marriage through an affair ends in tragedy. Apparently, dreams deferred are dreams doomed to fail. As Nick Carraway says, "you can't repeat the past"- the novel seems to imply there is a small window for certain dreams, and when the window closes, they can no longer be attained. This is pretty pessimistic, and for the prompt's personal reflection aspect, I wouldn't say you should necessarily "apply this lesson to your own life" straightforwardly. But it is worth noting that certain opportunities are fleeting, and perhaps it's wiser to seek out newer and/or more attainable ones, rather than pining over a lost chance. Any prompt like this one which has a section of more personal reflection gives you freedom to tie in your own experiences and point of view, so be thoughtful and think of good examples from your own life! Want to get better grades and test scores? We can help. PrepScholar Tutors is the world's best tutoring service. We combine world-class expert tutors with our proprietary teaching techniques. Our students have gotten A's on thousands of classes, perfect 5's on AP tests, and ludicrously high SAT Subject Test scores. Whether you need help with science, math, English, social science, or more, we've got you covered. Get better grades today with PrepScholar Tutors. #3: Explain how the novel does or does not demonstrate the death of the American Dream. Is the main theme of Gatsby indeed "the withering American Dream"? What does the novel offer about American identity? In this prompt, another one that zeroes in on the dead or dying American Dream, you could discuss how the destruction of three lives (Gatsby, George, Myrtle) and the cynical portrayal of the old money crowd illustrates a dead, or dying American Dream. After all, if the characters who dream end up dead, and the ones who were born into life with money and privilege get to keep it without consequence, is there any room at all for the idea that less-privileged people can work their way up? In terms of what the novel says about American identity, there are a few threads you could pick up- one is Nick's comment in Chapter 9 about the novel really being a story about (mid)westerners trying (and failing) to go East: "I see now that this has been a story of the West, after allTom and Gatsby, Daisy and Jordan and I, were all Westerners, and perhaps we possessed some deficiency in common which made us subtly unadaptable to Eastern life" (9.125). This observation suggests an American identity that is determined by birthplace, and that within the American identity there are smaller, inescapable points of identification. Furthermore, for those in the novel not born into money, the American identity seems to be about striving to end up with more wealth and status. But in terms of the portrayal of the old money set, particularly Daisy, Tom, and Jordan, the novel presents a segment of American society that is essentially aristocratic- you have to be born into it. In that regard, too, the novel presents a fractured American identity, with different lives possible based on how much money you are born with. In short, I think the novel disrupts the idea of a unified American identity or American dream, by instead presenting a tragic, fractured, and rigid American society, one that is divided based on both geographic location and social class. #4: Most would consider dreams to be positive motivators to achieve success, but the characters in the novel often take their dreams of ideal lives too far. Explain how characters' American Dreams cause them to have pain when they could have been content with more modest ambitions. Gatsby is an obvious choice here- his pursuit of money and status, particularly through Daisy, leads him to ruin. There were many points when perhaps Gatsby ;could have been happy with what he achieved (especially after his apparently successful endeavors in the war, if he had remained at Oxford, or even after amassing a great amount of wealth as a bootlegger) but instead he kept striving upward, which ultimately lead to his downfall. You can flesh this argument out with the quotations in Chapters 6 and 8 about Gatsby's past, along with his tragic death. Myrtle would be another good choice for this type of prompt. In a sense, she seems to be living her ideal life in her affair with Tom- she has a fancy NYC apartment, hosts parties, and gets to act sophisticated- but these pleasures end up gravely hurting George, and of course her association with Tom Buchanan gets her killed. Nick, too, if he had been happy with his family's respectable fortune and his girlfriend out west, might have avoided the pain of knowing Gatsby and the general sense of despair he was left with. You might be wondering about George- after all, isn't he someone also dreaming of a better life? However, there aren't many instances of George taking his dreams of an ideal life "too far." In fact, he struggles just to make one car sale so that he can finally move out West with Myrtle. Also, given that his current situation in the Valley of Ashes is quite bleak, it's hard to say that striving upward gave him pain. #5: The Great Gatsby is, among other things, a sobering and even ominous commentary on the dark side of the American dream. Discuss this theme, incorporating the conflicts of East Egg vs. West Egg and old money vs. new money. What does the American dream mean to Gatsby? What did the American Dream mean to Fitzgerald? How does morality fit into achieving the American dream? This prompt allows you to consider pretty broadly the novel's attitude toward the American Dream, with emphasis on "sobering and even ominous" commentary. Note that Fitzgerald seems to be specifically mocking the stereotypical rags to riches story here- ;especially since he draws the Dan Cody narrative almost note for note from the work of someone like Horatio Alger, whose books were almost universally about rich men schooling young, entrepreneurial boys in the ways of the world. In other words, you should discuss how the Great Gatsby seems to turn the idea of the American Dream as described in the quote on its head: Gatsby does achieve a rags-to-riches rise, but it doesn't last. All of Gatsby's hard work for Dan Cody, after all, didn't pay off since he lost the inheritance. So instead, Gatsby turned to crime after the war to quickly gain a ton of money. Especially since Gatsby finally achieves his great wealth through dubious means, the novel further undermines the classic image of someone working hard and honestly to go from rags to riches. If you're addressing this prompt or a similar one, make sure to focus on the darker aspects of the American Dream, including the dark conclusion to the novel and Daisy and Tom's protection from any real consequences. (This would also allow you to considering morality, and how morally bankrupt the characters are.) #6: What is the current state of the American Dream? This is a more outward-looking prompt, that allows you to consider current events today to either be generally optimistic (the American dream is alive and well) or pessimistic (it's as dead as it is in The Great Gatsby). You have dozens of potential current events to use as evidence for either argument, but consider especially immigration and immigration reform, mass incarceration, income inequality, education, and health care in America as good potential examples to use as you argue about the current state of the American Dream. Your writing will be especially powerful if you can point to some specific current events to support your argument. What's Next? In this post, we discussed how important money is to the novel's version of the American Dream. You can read even more about money and materialism in The Great Gatsby right here. Want to indulge in a little materialism of your own? Take a look through these 15 must-have items for any Great Gatsby fan. Get complete guides to Jay Gatsby, George Wilson and Myrtle Wilson to get even more background on the "dreamers" in the novel. Like we discussed above, the green light is often seen as a stand-in for the idea of the American Dream. Read more about this crucial symbol here. Need help getting to grips with other literary works? Take a spin through our analyses of The Crucible, The Cask of Amontillado, and "Do not go gentle into this good night" to see analysis in action. You might also find our explanations of point of view, rhetorical devices, imagery, and literary elements and devices helpful. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: