Tuesday, April 30, 2019
sheath evaluation - Essay ExampleIt is concluded that Sara as a film character is well-developed and not one-dimensional like other film heros and villains are.The main theme of the film, faith, is embodied by the character of Sara Crewe. Growing upto a rich family in India, Sara believes that all girls are princesses. As a young girl, she was encouraged by her father to believe in such(prenominal) things as magic. As a result, Sara became more in foregather with the fantasy world than in the banal realities of life. She enjoys reliving and retelling the story of Ramayana, takes pleasure in reading books and vie with expensive dolls, and most importantly, appreciates a world of make-believe that is driven by fantasy. Her being open to the arts, emotions, unconventional ideas, and adventure is what brings life to the movie.Saras open nature has influenced the way she was perceived and treated by the schools headmistress, Miss Minchin, the students, and the servant girl, Becky. D uring her fist week at school, Sara became an instant favorite among the students because of her ability to tell the story of Ramayana in such a creative andengaging manner. By imagining that she could talk to her dead mother in heaven, Sara was able to finish off the tantrums of Lottie who also lost her mother as a young child. In one of the most unforgettable scenesin the film, a flower vendor offers Sara a bright yellow flower and utters the phrase For the princess. Sara acquire the flower with a smile and then, like a princess, took a bow. A turning point in the film, this scene established that all girls are, indeed, princesses regardless of their social and economic status. Saras being open led her to admit and believe what her father has been telling her all along, and which was re-affirmed by the flower vendor.Sara also acted with a sense of duty, self-discipline, and achievement. Because Sara knew the French language by heart, she felt it was her duty to teach the other s tudents on her free time.
Monday, April 29, 2019
Customer involvement in current product development - Essay Example84). At the end of the day when the products ar introduced to the mart it is the customers who impart buy them. This is the reason as to why roughly marketing professionals adjudge the assertion that customer plowshare flush toilet be of high importance to the process of introducing a new product (Hesselbach & Herrmann 2011, p. 207). Some multitude disagree with this assertion with claims that customers cannot re in ally know if they want something that does not exist already.The purpose of this report is to raise the understanding on the role that customers can play in the product development process. By the habit of marketing theory, practice, and other marketing concepts this reports will prove just how important customer contribution can be to the development process of new products.It is important for a business organization to know that ameliorate the relationship between them and the customers should go beyond just the economic relationship of buyers and sellers. The main aim of all organizations in the business world is to get a competitive advantage that cannot be undone. The ways finished which they can be able to get such an advantage is through making sure that their products are valuable, rare, un- substitutable and un-imitable. Developing such a product is in no way something that can be considered a walk in the park. If in any case a product is to become valuable it is the customers who have to value it if in any case it has to do well in the market (Sandmeier 2008, p. 56). Therefore, it will be important for a business organization to know exactly what their targeted market values (Foss 2012, p. 129). By acute what they value the company can also come up with a product that is not substitutable because they will be able to add the values that the other products that are already in the market are missing.In the process of developing and introducing a new product to th e market, there is always some uncertainty. The
Sunday, April 28, 2019
internet Service Providers - Dissertation utilizationIn the long-run, making it legal to allow ISPs to charge premium rate for priority services leave open new business opportunity for ISPs to earn more money which eventually can be spent on further improvements on their existing net income infrastructure or the need to course new fibber networks (BBC News, 2010 Blodget, 2010). On the contrary, there are also a liberal group of community and business organizations who will be negatively affected by implementing differential gear pricing on Internet services. For this reason, there are a lot of individuals who are against making it legal for ISPs to offer different levels of Internet services based on what the customers are willing to remunerate for. By allowing the ISPs to offer low grocery store prices for poor quality Internet services, ISPs will have the edge to convince more people to pay more money for faster Internet glide slope. It means that the end-customers will h ave to shoulder a large amount of money for using more Internet bandwidth (Blodget, 2010 Jarvis, 2010). Two- accelerate internet aims to charge premium prices on topic makers and customers who are willing to pay more for fast lane access (BBC News, 2010). ... s on YouTube or improve the current Internet services offered Google will negatively affected once the two speed internet connection is implemented (Jarvis, 2010). As a result, the number of audiences these online advertisers are targeting may eventually shrink. lucre neutrality is referring to the principle wherein information transferred through Internet services are treated with equal priority (Stair, Reynolds and Reynolds, 2010, p. 275). It means that ISPs are obliged to collect equal payment from each of the Internet users regardless of whether or not the end-users are using more or less bandwidth. Implementing the two-speed Internet policy or differential pricing in UK can lead to the end of the Internet. Since it will be costly on the plane section of the Internet users to pay for Internet services, the overall expected Internet traffic will decrease. As a result, the business of content providers and online advertisers like Google and Facebook are expected to become less effective. This is the primary reason wherefore Google and Facebook are strongly in support of net neutrality for landline and wireless networks (Maisto, 2010 McCarthy, 2010). Q.2 Discuss the extremity to which it is valid and useful to treat all data as being equal in the mise en scene of it being transferred across the internet. Net neutrality serves as a guide in terms of preserving the users license to have access to an open Internet. In other words, the context of net neutrality requires all data being transferred across the Internet should be treated equally provided that these data are legal. As explained by Andersen and Gray (2008, p. 289), net neutrality requires all ISPs to avoid promoting discrimination among it s customers by offering speed-up or slow-down access to Web-based contents. Morley (2008,
Saturday, April 27, 2019
impart the potential spread of country lead to a more secure realness (Contra) - Essay fountAccording to this possibility, commonwealth plays an important role in maintaining peace and shelter. The concept further claims that antiauthoritarian nations argon generally peaceful and comparably less war-oriented. Consequently, the larger physical body of democratic nations in the global policy-making system will lead to a smaller possibility of war and greater assurance of security and peace in the world. However, the evidence presented by various experts and researchers, including Siverson (1996), Huth (1997), Rummel (1997), Herman and Chomsky (1988), and the failure of democratization in third world countries, the presence of democratic deficit in transnational democratic organizations like, the European Union (EU), and the growing number of flawed democracies in the world have casted serious doubts on the validity of the democratic peace possible action (DPT) (Ray 27-30 Herm an and Chomsky1-11). On the basis of a scholarly research and available data, the present paper highlights the major flaws of democratic system and attempts to confute the assumptions of the democratic peace theory (DPT). The paper argues that only the potential spread of democracy wont lead to more secure world, rather flawed and unmethodical promotion of democracy can lead to more instability and insecurity in the world.First of all, democratic peace theory has given overemphasis on democracy for maintaining global peace. The democratic peace theory and proponents of democratization have excessively promoted the reduced number of interstate wars in recent years, however, they intentionally ignore the growing number of intrastate wars, civil riots and cultural conflicts in newly democratized or flawed democratic states. The primary estimation of the ethnic security dilemma is the feeling of insecurity that the opposite party may try to take over the state at ones loss.
Friday, April 26, 2019
Juvenile Delinquency - Article modelIdentifying kids at risk of becoming juvenile delinquents must be done in the earliest years of a childs life because the earlier a child starts to commit crimes, the subsequent crimes are more in all probability to be violent ones.The authors separated their study into two parts. They differentiated their findings based on sex. They lay out that in the course of their study, males and females exhibited some strikingly different attributes that lead to criminality. While many of the factors are the very(prenominal) for males and females, the authors were quick to point out that understanding the differences between male and female was important for early intercession efforts.When examining the data on male new-fashioned delinquents, the authors found that a cluster of factors seemed to be shared by all of the male juvenile person delinquents. The most commonly shared characteristic was low social sparing status. The majority of all incarc erated male delinquents that were a part of the study grew up either in pauperisation or very poor. Economic stresses were identified as a major factor in predicting juvenile crime.Another factor that contributes to male juvenile delinquency is exposure to trauma and craze early in childhood. Half of the participants in the study report being physically abused or witnessing acts of physical violence against family members. The authors point out that experiencing these sorts of traumas can lead to psychopathologies that result in criminal acts. Many male juvenile delinquents display signs of these pathologies. They have higher rates of depression, self-abuse, and remorselessness than does the non-delinquent population.A final indicator of an increased threat of delinquent activity is family structure. Males growing up in single family homes are more than twice as likely to commit crimes than males growing up in a home with both biological parents present.
Thursday, April 25, 2019
James Hutton - Important Figures in Earth comprehension - Essay Examplesolely he did not take to geology right at the beginning of his charge as he entered legal profession as an apprentice in a law firm. But enamored with chemistry as he was at that stage, he spent more time in trying to find how sal ammoniac could be processed from coal soot. It was only natural that his employers were not amuse by this and he was asked to leave. He found refuge in medicine as it bore closely affinity with chemistry and at twenty three old age of age got an MD degree from Holland. By this time, his forays into manufacturing sal ammoniac became commercially viable and he forsook medicine for this opportunity. He returned to Scotland and started pursuing this venture in bountiful earnest till he earned enough fortune within the next three years to retire from it and settle in Edinburgh for pursuing his scientific interests as a full time engagement. He started reading and travelling extensively and submitted his observations in the form two papers at Royal nightspot of Edinburgh in 1785. When these papers were published three years later in 1788, they altered forever the side of geological science (Scott, 2009). His theory, commonly referred to as unformitariansim, postulates that all observable geological phenomena of the world have been uniformly repeating themselves over long periods of time.
Wednesday, April 24, 2019
Is True Love Real or Just an Illusion - explore Paper Examplescientifically rigorous in their characterization of the concept, however they disagree on what constitutes get it on and to what extent the traditional concept of true fill in is the same today as it was in knightly generations. This essay considers these perspectives in regards to Raymond Carvers short story and offers its own unique perspective on the concept of true love.Raymond Carvers short story What We Talk About, When We Talk around Love examines the concept of love from a number of angles. One such formulation is presented by Mels wife Terri. Terri describes a relationship she had with her former husband Ed who used to abuse her because he couldnt gain total control over her. Later in the story Mel posits a several(predicate) sport of love wherein a senior citizen couple gets in a traffic accident and the husband is in despair because he is unable to turn his head to view his wife. While the story presents these concepts a different types of love, they actually function very similar in logically supporting their claims. These are examples where true love is understood by its intensity of expression. That love is not a medical or scientific example, just is an intensity of feeling that is surfaces in things such as the example described.Throughout the conversation Nick and Laura outride passive participants and are in great part dominated by Mel. The story notes that Mel is a heart specialist -- that is, a doctor used to formulating medical prescriptions and categorizing human functions. It follows that he would be the most confident in overtly defining what love is. In a sense, Mel believes that love can be understood and specify through reason love is passionate intensity love is deep devotion, etc. When Nick and Laura serve to the question they nudge each other under the table and then Nick takes Lauras paw and kisses it. This is an understanding of love that is not ascertain d but felt. Nick and Laura are not able to define their
keep Report on Three Books - Essay ExampleAfter reading the authors story and confronting his notions, the reader finds that they vex in his mind just like the way a delicious meals aroma engulfs and settles with a person. Charles Fourier is amongst the redundant obscure individuals among chief utopian thinkers. This is not on grounds that we know remarkably little of him, further since for a majority of academicians his identity amasses a stock illustration of long standing. By reference to blackguard Manuels usher in of 1971 to choosing from the writings of Charles Fourier, nearly every last(predicate) the scholars of Utopia be conversant with the slender, droning subsistence. The writings are centered on the poorly paid clerk, roomer in monotonous boarding residences and the pitiful check home each mealtime to wait for the affluent sponsor who would sponsor the founding of Harmony. His areas command secretary, refused to edit one of Fouriers exertions because, the apprai sal of such bizarre paradoxes shows too many complexities ever get too hazardous. Most ensuing judgment faced with such notions as sexual appeals, amid extraterrestrial bodies and oceans at long last becoming lemonade, adjusts this verdict only by totaling or be taken sincerely. Jonathan Beecher takes apart this typical deputation and discloses Fourier as an additional wholly rounded individual and rationally logical intellectual. Beecher has dedicated over 20 years of powerful analysis to the author, who, he thinks of all socialist intellectuals appeared to tender the broadest, most liberal manifestation of human likelihood. The consequence is a merge of individual and scholar memoirs that can stain as eventual(prenominal) no basis, serious or minor, appears to have fled the writer, who incorporates them into a complete, sensible, and extremely decipherable study ( reliablewin, Barbara, and Keith 56). Nietzsche Beyond Good and Evil Beyond Good and Evil, is a complete general idea of Nietzsches way of established thinking. The spate comprises of 296 expresss, ranging in extent from a handful sentences to some pages. These sayings are thematically clustered into nine various sections and are concluded by a foreword and a verse. Whereas every saying can position individually, there is the existence of a linear development amid sayings within sections and from one section to the next. However, each saying gives a characteristic viewpoint and still the section conclusions leave out a grand deal. The preface indicts theorists of rigidity, and the initial section surveys this allege. Every grand viewpoint, Nietzsche declares, is modest surplus to the confession. Theorists build up intricate structures of archetype to validate their individual suppositions and chauvinism. If we could excavate these, we could perceive what these theorists treasure most profoundly, and so achieve analysis into their temperament. Nietzsche compares their rigidity with the lib erated spirit that is not detained in a meticulous viewpoint. He anticipates that the future theorists will be typified by such an untried technique, eager to attempt out whichever supposition, and trail every dispute all through to its end. After a debate, of the spiritual spirit, which he asserts is a type of rigidity Nietzsche get on a sequence of axioms, the majority of which emphasize
Tuesday, April 23, 2019
Good vs Evil in Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde - Research Paper ExampleGreat people be involved in bad things this is the fact of live, yet this does not make them wrong (Stevenson pp 28-75).Using the of import characters and the key theme of the duplicity of mankind Louis Stevenson strategically clears the air on the broad theme of keen and evil in the book. By use of the character of Dr. Jekyll, the author explains beloved. Mr. Utterson who is a lawyer establish in London worrywise an old friend of Dr. Jekyll he has the quality of being loyal to his friends and also concerned about Henry Dr. Jekyll. With this loyalty, he asks him about his pal Mr. Hyde whom he had left his luggage in his will (Cresser N.P). You know I never approved of it, said the doctor. Mr. Utterson believes that the doctor bed them by lies self-possession to a man whom he meet but rather than being annoyed. Dr. Jekyll he shows concern like a true loyal friend would have, from Mr. Utterson view he explain and als o offer an fair(a) and fair narrative role though this can be ironical for it is directly intertwined to his profession of a lawyer (Dury pp 2-4).Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde are depicted as an examination of the duality of human nature. This is expressing in the revelation that, Mr. Hyde is Dr. Jekyll however transformed into a personification of Dr. Jekyll characteristics. In the pursuit if his scientific experiments and validating his work, Dr. Jekyll claims man is not sincerely one, but truly two therefore according to Dr. Jekylls opinion, every soul contains elements of both good and evil but is evil inside of him. As a highly respected member of the connection and also an honorable Victorian gentleman, Dr. Jekyll cannot fulfill his evil desires. To satisfy and also separate the two split he has to work to come up with a way to alienate it from his soul free his evil characteristic (Linehan pp 46).Dr. Jekyll can be considered as a complete composite because he has a mixed bag of good and
Monday, April 22, 2019
Quesions - Assignment subjectThe other type of leadership is bureaucratic leadership where the leaders follow the set rules and regulations rigorously and the uniform goes for their followers (Class Notes, 2015). This type of leadership is most common in organizations, government agencies and industries. The other type is the delegative leadership, as well known as the Laissez-Faire type of leadership. The leaders who use this type of leadership do non offer any assistance to the followers and in most cases the followers be their own supervisors. The followers make their own decisions and carry-out their activities without too much supervision.Among these leadership styles, I believe that I am suit well as a democratic leader. For example, when I join study groups I tend to privilege it when everyone participates in solving the academic problems even though the teacher has the final say about solutions we get. I am aw are that such type of leadership ensures that followers ar e motivated because they feel interchangeable they are part of the decision made. It also makes followers feel extremely all important(p) in a group or in organizations which results to increased commitment and work output or performance for students. The challenges are there because I know most followers under his type of leadership tend to be less productive than those who may be in an authoritarian group.The climate of a campus is critically important for the success of students (Gorton & Alston, 2011). By climate, this refers to a school environment that is like to foster the continuity and successful nurture process. Hence, if the climate is favorable for students and teachers, learning becomes a continuous process and success is guaranteed when students and teachers do their best. For example, if there are riots in a school the teachers and students are not in a good position to go about their tasks. Teachers cannot teach when students are rioting and students also hamper their learning process. There are
Sunday, April 21, 2019
Cultural Scenario - Essay subjectIn the Chinese business world, however, it is also understood as the network of relationships among various parties that cooperate in concert and support one another (Netfirms).The second mistake Karen do was that she did not talk to Tsang Yao and went over his luff to file a complaint to the COO which made her look bad due to her ignorance of Chinese culture. If Kaken had talked to Yao starting she could have mitigated the situation and gotten educated about the importance of Guanxi in China. The third mistake Karen made occurred upon being assigned to the Chinese office. At that moment she should have research Chinese culture and go across several weeks reading nurture from journal articles, professional databases, books, and the internet regarding Chinese culture. An excellent database that provides great information about countries is the CultureGrams database. China is the most populated place in world with a population of 1.33 meg inhabit ants (CulureGrams, 2011)The assumption that Karen made was that Tsang Yao was discriminating against other candidates by hiring his family members and friends based on preferential treatment. Karen wanted to shelter the best interest of the company since in the United States that type of mass hiring of family and friends could lead to a favoritism lawsuit. She assumed that Tsang Yao was taking advantage of his position to enrich his family. Karen thought that better candidates were being passed over and were not considered by Tsang Yao. Karens primary problem was her lack of communication with her colleagues. There was no reason to approach the COO involved. Karen should have confronted Yao first prior to going up the power ladder. She was astonished when Daniel Young reprimanded her sooner of taking correction action to ensure equal opportunity rights were protected.I believe in the measure out
Saturday, April 20, 2019
cultivation perplexity system - Essay Example............12 discipline Management System Google Plus Executive summary The advancements that collide with a leak been made in technology over the years have led to a change in the ways that organizations conduct their business activities, with new methods and practices having been introduced in this neo modern era as a result. Whereas many functions were mostly handled manually or at least supervised thus in the past, the approach that has been made in the software and hardware industry have allowed for more mechanized responsibility to take over. This has proved to be more efficient and accurate in terms of capability and companies are reservoir to realize the importance of inducting their organizations to this technological revolution. Among the various advancements that have been made in this era is the creation of Information Management Systems. These are one of the more popular inventions to enter the various industries and have proved to be a great success in the various fields in which they have been applied. A complete study of the various models available to an organization serves to educate the company on the best strategy to accomplish according to their particular needs. Introduction Information management systems skunk be described as a collection of both hardware and software combined with the ability to receive and filter raw information and then process and use it to create new data relevant to certain organization.. The ability of Information Systems (IS) to perform these tasks has made life a whole lot easier for organizations operating on the basis of enceinte amounts of different types of information flowing within and without the company in order for it to function efficiently. What previously took a lot of man power and hard labor can now be done in a span of minutes as the Information Systems are able to calculate needed equations at a considerably faster rate than man. As a res ult, these Information Systems have now assiduous a strategic role in contemporary business organizations that now use them to build sustainable competitive advantages over their rivals as they try to keep an eye on an edge above the rest of their peers in the industry. conceptual framework Google is one such company that can be used as an example of the importance of Information Systems in the new age business (Google). As this organization started out as a search engine, it can be said that information was the forte that it dealt with and this is something that is still needed to date non only in their original business, but in their in-house activities as well. The organizational strategy of the company can thus said to be the future expansion of its influence on the social network merchandise through the introduction of new and unique services within Google Plus to attract new clientele. sooner one studies the various Information Systems that are used by the company and the various advantages that they bring to the mesa however, it is essential to first try and understand the strategy that they have undertaken within the market to ensure that they maintain their competitive edge and are not usurped by their rivals (McKeen & Smith 89). This can be done apply the Michael Porter
Friday, April 19, 2019
Turning Fear Into and Everyday Relevance - Term Paper good exampleEven more revealing were the results found by the 2000 Decorte, Verschaffel and Green study which stated, when middle school students were prompted to take on their pargonnts about their use of the Pythagorean Theorem, an overwhelming 78% answered that they could not recall ever using the Pythagorean Theorem in their day to day lives (Decorte, Verschaffel and Green). In response, many modern day teachers draw begun to explore impudently ways to teach the Pythagorean Theorem in an attempt to help students see the relevance it can have in their everyday lives.For many students, the words Pythagorean Theorem can sound incredibly daunting and intimidating. It is the teachers business sector to show them how the process of this theorem are performed in various daily situations, and that they have probably already experient it without genuineizing it. By introducing students to real-life examples, teachers can help ta ke the fear out of the equation. Some mathematicians and teachers have attempted to beat textbooks that use a bare minimum of sentential representation and argument (Lindsay). These books often proved empty without further explanation from the teacher. They proved that students needed real-life examples of how the Pythagorean Theorem worked in order to understand the process. The diagrams in these textbooks are often referred to as diagrammatic demonstrations. A diagram that illustrates a mathematical relation by display in essence that it is an accurate reflection of the behavior of objects in space and provides an understanding because it grounds the induction in our customary experience (Lindsay). The problem with these diagrams was that they often reflected shaped that were unrealistic and never seen in real life. One approach that many teachers are currently pursuing is to use pictures of real buildings, baseball fields, and another(prenominal) such relevant structures.
Thursday, April 18, 2019
Economics - Essay ExamplePoliticians from the developed nations and even the governments of the developing world evaluate their economies to boom once the trade barriers were removed, the free flow of capital permitted and modern technology used to adjoin productivity. However, with the process of unchecked globalization, the problems associated with it at times have taken a greater cost than the reach provided.Of course the positive or negative impact of globalization has not only been felt by the people in the developing nations but also by people living in America. For example, a company which is heavily outsourcing some of its production abilities may give higher profits to the owners as a positive benefit of globalization. On the other hand, if the same company announces layoffs for American workers, globalization has shown the negative fount of itself to those workers who lost their jobs in the process.Another central point made in the film which I tactile sensation is ver y important is the interconnection and dependence of the world economy on everything running smoothly in international terms. For example, an economic crisis in one country can have regional repercussions as exemplified by the case of the economic situation that developed in Brazil. If the country is strong enough or is a significant partner in global trade for many other countries, an economic crisis can press the whole world into action as in the case of Japan.Finally, I think the most modify message carried by the film was the idea that globalization and the use of technology will not be the answer to all the problems which are faced by the human civilization. Although these are good tools to help those who necessity them, they can also serve as tools to deprive some of their rights and disenfranchise those who are unable to be a part of the modern technological revolution. These can only be useful when their application is approve with an understanding of the issues and a be lief that
Wednesday, April 17, 2019
Accounting Information Is Produced Only For Its User - Essay ExampleManagerial score is the division of accounting system contemplation and study that deals with presenting knowledge that helps finality makers to lead to some conclusion inside the organisation, correlated to the consumption of goods and utilization of enterprise favourable possibilities.It ought to be highlighted that the precincts of managerial accounting are not fixed. Managerial accounting, in general with financial accounting has an attention on the enterprise and its actions. It varies from financial accounting only in terms of verdict makers whose decision criteria are usually changed from those offered by financial accounting. Additionally, some(prenominal) decision models that have developed for use by organisation and in support of which accountants deliver the necessity accounting information inputs have been developed under this regulation of professional economics and professional business. (Hussey, 1999, pp 45-46) These decision representations are commonly expressed as component of managerial accounting as it is obligatory to be aware of organisation resolution models in order to provide information that is appropriate for the decision.At last, it is becoming extensively accepted that business institutes manage by the synchronised hard work of individuals. Therefore, achievement of majority of charge judgments centres on fascinating the human beings concerned to perform their tasks in a way most safe(p) with the intention of the result. The learning of the relations of people working in the enterprise has for a short clip been imperative for the creation of management accounting structure. From the time when the tools for such types of study have been introduced in the behavioural sciences, the accounting discipline has eternally wrung the behavioural sciences as a basis for enhanced study and training. semipermanent Management Decisions and Related Accounting Information Setting the long-term income target, the long attainment of the activity depends upon the managements electrical capacity to recognize and put into practice the most capable programs, product lines and schemes within the organisations abilities and its ecological and money-capital restrictions. The initial subscribe to accomplishment is dynamic searching of possibilities, either to offer latest and improved services or goods or to build up recent and enhanced means of manufacturing. The previous necessitate contribution, at least at some nominal stage, in research into current advertise and user predilection, together with product progression research. The later requires minimum association with business engineering plus behavioural, managerial, and institutional examination. These all are basically knowledge-getting actions put in by experts excluding accountants. The involvement of accountants move towards into participates in another important key to long-run achievement of the enterprise-the picking of the most competent set from amongst the well-known substitutes. Capital-Budgeting Decisions The critical aspect of long-run substitutes is that they more often than not entail substantial preliminary expenses of the enterprises partial money resources for functioning. Introductory outlays comprise costs for such tweet like long-standing assets to be employed in the program, official fees, and extra expenses of organisational and developmental exploration. More than numerous forthcoming periods, allied supplementary expenditures are requisite to construct benefits in the form of ready money or cut down overall outlays than the
3800 discuss 2 part 1 - Assignment ExampleThe body of the victim should whence be photographed and each piece of photo placed differently. The photos should depict any physical injury that whitethorn be on the body of the victim. Physical medical examination on the body is then carried out. This includes the ingathering of hair and fiber that may be on the body. Fingernail scrapings and dental floss should be collected. This is done by the use of wooden sticks. The compendium of urine and sweat samples on the victim is also done. The medical incumbent should retrieve any traces of still on the victims body. Internal fluids are then collected. The collection should be mainly done on the mouth, vaginal or anal cavity (Schiro, 2015). The labeling of each fluid should be accurate.In the instance where the incidence has occurred in the buttroom, any piece bedding should be collected. Spreaders, bed sheets and comforters should be analyzed for any fluid traces. They are then air drie d and packaged differently. To contain that the no traces of evidence are lost during collection and packaging, the collector should use the side lighting technique (Schiro,
Tuesday, April 16, 2019
Proposed Market Entry Strategy Essay1. Executive abridgmentThe use of standard atmosphere soma is widespread since it does non only provide appropriate way temperature for electrical equipments that catch internet and telecommunication names plainly alike provide comfortable atmosphere for cool down rooms in a houses, trade centers, office buildings and umpteen others. The situation reveals that pedigree teach equipments give up vital roles in society.However, the use of note learn devices is associated with noble embodys since they consume big(p) effect of electrical current. Under such circumstances, the development of efficacious cooling and purifying devices become the next confront in the transfer cooling and purifying development. One of gloriole purifying and cooling harvestings available in the commercialize is EnerVent, which developed by Northridge Enterprise. The company understands that to win customers hearts, there ar four key features t hat EnerVent should sustain they be real Fresh disperse have a bun in the oveny, low costs and low heat skill charge instruct in compact design, higher(prenominal) feeling of personal account of credit purifiers that be not nevertheless circulating the comparable air in a room, and talent to eliminate offensive gases, mold, and germs.Concerning the issue, this paper has elaborated several issues mentioning the commercialise entry outline for EnerVent including target commercializes, market potential, competitive market analysis, marketing objectives, marketing mix strategy ( ingathering, place, promotion, and place)2. Introduction2.1. schooling of carry Conditioning and Purifying yieldsNowadays, the discussion over the benefits of the sophisticated information engineering including computers and telecommunications on origin and communication is an endless topic in seminars or exhibitions. However, in articulate to work properly, such equipments need low -temperature in antitheticiate to prevent overheating so that the use of high-power air teach is vast in the equipment rooms.In addition to the use of air teach devices for cooling rooms, they besides provide comfortable atmosphere for cooling rooms in a houses, trade centers, office buildings and many others. The situation reveals that air conditioning equipments make up vital roles in society. This makes sense since the use of air conditioning is widespread and easily found in al approximately e really place that provide comfortable atmosphere. jibe to ARI CoolNet, air conditioning has several functional benefits as undermentioned Providing personal comfort Improving intersection pointiveness in the workplace where it relates to the comfortable place the air conditioning provides Increasing good medical and wellness services Helping vendors to preserve fresh and frozen foods like seafood, frozen potatoes, sausage an many others defend electrical equipment from excessive heatingSince the use of air conditioning, introductoryly called as make air, is vital in day-to-day activities, it becomes a signifi washstandt invention in human history. However, recent air conditioning or ventilation products do not end in the development of fancy casing or air-conditioned temperature but similarly in several values added features.For example, the invention of Plasma cluster technology, which is capable of cleanup 99-percent bacterium and viruses including Aviation flue viruses, becomes the Sharps competitive advantage that generate revenue for the Japanese companys air conditioning and cooling products including refrigerators, chillers, air conditioner, air purifiers, to name a few.However, the use of air conditioning products is associated with high costs since they consume large power of electrical current. Under such circumstances, the development of streamlined cooling and purifying devices become the next stage in the air cooling and purifying develop ment.2.2. EnerVent ProductsEnerVent is manucircumstanceured to fulfill the need for efficient ventilation system that has several features including compact design ( shrimpy) and lightweight compared to be whole house and individual room air conditioning system. The EnerVent has favorable tagline that clearly target specific customers as interestthither is nothing like fresh air from pioneer windows on a origin day. Yet high heating and air conditioning costs keep homes sealed riled to save funds. Harmful odors, gases, mold, and germs stay in. Even timbre air purifiers can only clean and unfold the same air. The EnerVent system offers the best of both worlds, bringing in and circulating out up to 12 true air exchanges daily without a significant energy penaltyThe EnerVent jargon suggests that there are four features that the company concerns when underdeveloped EnerVent they are Fresh air delivery, low costs and low heating air conditioning in compact design, high superio r of air purifiers that are not merely circulating the same air in a room, and capability to eliminate harmful gases, mold, and germs.Concerning the size, Figure 1 shows example of several air conditioning designs that appear to be usual, large, and compact design.(a) GMG(b) DelonghiFigure 1 Several Design of Existing gentle wind Conditioning SystemSource OK CHINA industrial LTD, 2007In addition to size, competition in air conditioning system evolves into the provision of fresh air that circulate the true fresh air from the outside instead circulating the same air. This feature is significantly important since masses have great concerns over the raising pollution because of industrial plants discard smoke, the timbre fire, bad air-refreshing systems in a house, etc.Generally, air pollution in the U.S., to be precise, and other industrial countries is because acid rain in both the U.S. and Canada in which the US becomes a country that emits a large amount of carbon dioxide as the result of fossil fuels burning limited resources of natural fresh wet, water pollution due to pesticides and fertilizers ( standard pressure pollution from other countries drifts into USA, 2005).Concerning the capability of eliminating odor, EnerVent alike present attractive(a) features since the product is capable of eliminating harmful odors, gases, mold, and germs. In the market, this feature is best incorporateed by Sharps Plasma cluster product as shown in the Figure 2.(a) Sharp FU40SEK(b) Sharp FU-S40TAFigure 2 Sharp Air Purifier with Plasma cluster technologySource Callde, 2007 Pantipmarket, 20073. Target MarketsSince EnerVent has particular characteristics that present the true fresh air to either whole houses and individual room, therefore, the target market for EnerVent is as following Brand of Products True fresh air like one from open windows on a Spring day Eliminate harmful odors, gases, mold, and germs stay in Low energy consumption Customers Preferences People who concern about the need for fresh air in a room that has capability to eliminate harmful materials at low operation costs Ages above 25 (this is the age where people use their reasoning(prenominal) reasons when buying a product). This is important since home electronic industry are fulfilled with advertising that conjuring customers Income Levels above $2,500 per month (considering that the expense of airPurifying is above $100, see Figure 3)Figure 3 Air PurifierSource Bizrate, 20074. Market Potential and Sales ForecastThe market potential for air purifiers from EnerVent is people who concerns about the People who concern about the need for fresh air in a room that has capability to eliminate harmful materials at low operation costs. The description suggests that EnerVent target both high-end customers since they are to a greater extent concern about complete features regardless the harm and low-end customers since they concern about low-operational costs patronage high ow nership costs.For high end customers, they realize that air pollution is more than than influencing the children than adult. All of U.S. researchers open their study about finding the polluted air impact at the children. It is believed that air pollution make the children lung become smaller. This evidence assures that air pollution own the chronic impact. In addition, this impact go forth be permanent at all of the children until they become adult (Air Pollution Might Affect Lung Development in Children, Study Finds, 2004).Bad air quality give the negative impact to the environmental quality and the financial loss because of the air pollution is not small. Because financially, air pollution give improve the cost, which must(prenominal) be become the responsibility of society. It can be in the form of medical expense for painfulness suffered, decreasing of the work productivity as an effect of air pollution, and decreasing of the prosperity life.Due to the fact that air pollut ion may provide unfavorable condition for an entire family therefore, Northridge Enterprise has wide market potential to sell EnerVent, the true air purifier. To be specific the market potential for EnerVent is as following4.1. Middle and High Class market, Offices and BuildingsThere are many considerations in the minds of consumers when they are buying air conditioning product. In most parts of the world, air conditioning is the consumption of mid(prenominal)dle and high-class families, buildings and offices. For these people, cost is not the prime factor of consideration. It is quality that concerns them the most. In the light of this consideration, the Enervent will only increase small portion of the market in this segment because there are many air conditioning products which have better features and higher capacity to regulate air in large offices. The Enervent on the other hand, can only regulate air in a limited space because it does not have the capability of producing coo l air as a regular air conditioning machine.There are however, mid and high class households and small offices that prefer to use air purifier because they like the natural atmosphere of their houses and offices. These are generally smaller establishments or places which have plenty, but small to medium-sized rooms. This represents an opportunity for Enervent to enter the medium and high class households, buildings and offices. The opportunity however, is very small compare to the entire market of air conditioning equipment in the medium and high class market.4.2. Medium and Lower Income FamiliesAir conditioning needs are not the sole demands of medium and high-class establishments. In the modern realm where peoples desire for quality has been considerably enhanced, the need for air conditioning spreads to the low income families and offices. This represents a better opportunity for Enervent to gain larger portion of the market. This is true because for low income families and low-b udget offices, the cost of having a full fledged air conditioning system can be quite overwhelming. In previous times, they generally switch to air purifier products because they are cheaper and do not consume too much electricity. However, the presence of the Enervent creates reinvigorated and better alternative. These people could gain better quality than clean air purifiers and pay cheaper costs than the average air conditioner products (Ward, 2007).4.3. The market for Air Regulator MachinesThe rapid development of economy in respective(a) regions of the world generated massive demands for air conditioning products. In some markets, the air conditioning products are displaying a rapid increase, like the Indian market and Saudi Arabian. They are potential markets because of their geographic conditions and their economic development. On the other hand, there are withal markets that displayed declining tendencies in the air conditioning market development because of the over-cro wded markets, like China. In Europe, United States and most of the Asiatic countries displayed stable or otherwise mild development in the air conditioning market (Wind of Change, 2006).The product is, on the other hand, a r organic evolutionary product filling a niche between the high cost air conditioning equipment and the simple air purifier machine. In a sense it has similar but divers(prenominal) markets than those of the air conditioner products.Because of the revolutionary nature of the industry, and the contributions from low income, middle and high class markets elaborated above, I believe that the product will take over approximately 5-10% of the air conditioning market in the end of the first year. Furthermore, being the sole producer of Enervent, then the sales number of the company will be similar to that percentage. For instance, if the US air conditioning market is worth US$ 1 one thousand thousand annually, then Enervent will generate a sales number of US$ 50-100 million.5. Competitive Market abstractThe air conditioning industry is a global industry. Most of the modern countries plus several of the developing countries witnessed rapid growth of their air national air conditioning industry. In Saudi Arabia for example, demands for air conditioners is the highest in the world. Analysts have stated that the Saudi Arabian market has become a unique investment opportunities for outside(prenominal) investors. Although not exactly alike, similar rate of growth can be witnessed in India and other developing countries (Saudi Aircon, 2007).Despite the rapid growth of the industry, Enervent cannot expect to gain the full benefit of the market development. The direct competition of Enervent is air conditioning itself. Despite their significantly higher wrongs, they have larger capacity of regulating temperature and the condition of large rooms.Modern air conditioning is to a fault equipped with various features that do not make up in Enervent, li ke self cleaning device, etc. Furthermore, air conditioning has a better and more widespread reputation that Enervent, which is a spick-and-span and unpopular product. The competitive advantages of Enervent against the direct competitor are price and efficiency. The product is considerably cheaper, lighter and more far more electricity efficient than the average air conditioning machine.Indirect competitor of Enervent is the cheaper and simpler air purifier. The low cost and electricity efficient device is also quite popular as alternative of air conditioners. They generate significantly less cost than the average air conditioner, but cannot act as a temperature regulator. Many considered that the air purifier and the air conditioner market is not the same. Nevertheless, they are the same. Air purifier is an indirect competitor of both the air conditioner market and Enervent. Enervent has the advantage of temperature control with similarly low cost and efficient electricity compare to the air purifier.In addition to the analysis above, there are also other factors in the air conditioner industry that generates opportunities for Enervent to grow, they are The emerging new styles of officesIn the modern world, people are not satisfied having the same offices as other companies. In order to facilitate such a need for creative office design. The trend toward more stylish offices generates more complicated buildings with less ventilation. Pursuing efficiency, more employees are stationed in smaller rooms. These conditions generated the need for larger capacities of air conditioning. This is logical because managers have realized that poor air quality in the workplace could result in lack of productivity and worse, sickness (Cunningham, 1986).The necessity for more air conditioning system generates more demands of air conditioning machines. However, because companies are constantly searching for ways to enhance efficiency, their charge turn toward products which c an deliver similar performance in air conditioning with less prices and more electricity efficient performance. This leads to opportunities for the newly designed Enervent, an air conditioning machine which are significantly cheaper and much more electricity efficient (Piercy, 1982). natural CompetitorsThe highly competitive environment is created by various factors. For one, the amount of players within the industry also plays a great role in shaping the competitive atmosphere. In the air conditioning market, further Eastern manufacturers have improved their manufacturing capabilities by cooperating with Japanese producers. The new entrants are expected to influence the European market aggressively by means of targeting an established distributor. These new entrants have significantly lower price structures, thus allowing them to deliver cheaper prices to consumers. This leads to harder and more competitive atmosphere in the industry of both air conditioning machines and air pu rifier machines. In a sense, this also influences Enerven as an alternative between the two products.6. market ObjectivesThe hardest flush of a marketer in getting the product accepted and recognized within the topical anesthetic environment. The Enervent is a new product with revolutionary technology. Its first year in the market should be the year of promotion and market penetration. Therefore the marketing objectives should be Establish presence in local environmentThere are various factors that could influence how a product will result revenues and profits within its market. to each one local environment has different preferences of how products should be. It is important for Enervent to win the hearts of local society by collaborating with local culture and traditions. The failure to achieve that will create poor and undeveloped sales performance. Thus, one of the most important and early marketing objective should be how to generate connection with local markets (Korey, 1 986). Discover new channel of distributions and marketingIn the first year of marketing, new products should be brought passim the markets using various channels and means of transportations. Getting to know the local infrastructure and how will it affect the business is very much important. Thus, discovering new channel of promotion and distribution is also an important objective (Koney, 1986) Create a distinctionEstablishing presence and discovering new channels are usually not enough to get the product running and generate revenues and profits. The product needs features or appearance that will differentiate it from other products. This legal action is called brand designing (Keegan, 1989).7. Marketing MixIn the following chapter I will use existent information to make an assessment of how Enervent should be sold. This assessment is important because it determines the shape of the business offering toward consumers. Re-designing the business offerings has been the core purpose of performing a marketing mix analysis. In terms of Enervent, the following is suggested7.1. Product Positioning StrategyEnervent should be well promoted to reflect capabilities of the new and revolutionary product. As implied in previous chapters, the product should be advertised as a brilliant alternative to air conditioning and air purifier. It is the combination of both worlds which brings the best of them. The product can also be advertised as the new revolution in air conditioning. The advertising campaign would have to generate the image that Enervent is the next contemporaries of low cost, low energy air conditioning (Keegan, 1989).As mentioned in previous chapter, the product has different opportunities in different segments of the market. Therefore, there is a need to perform different emphasize on different segments of the market. In the medium to high-class households, buildings and offices, the company should focus on promoting the product as a able replacement of th e average air conditioning system because of its air temperature management capabilities and its low cost and energy efficient nature. This would attract those customers which prefer to maintain the naturality of their environments as mentioned before.On the other hand, in the low-income households and offices, the product should be promoted as the new generation of air conditioning. The product should be promoted as the new and brilliant evolution toward environmental friendliness and quality preservation. Because the company is forecasted to generate more sales in this segment, this characteristic of product positioning (as a revolutionary new generation of air conditioning) should be the main scenario of marketing.Other exercisees within the product positioning activities which require attention includes paying attention to manufacturing specifications, labeling and packaging to represent the target market we are aiming and the position of our product. The product must also be t ested first before it enters the market. Analysts also suggested that the product should be matched with its surrounding environment, whether in times of sale or distribution. For instance, products that travel through the pathway should contain different specifications and equipments to products that travel through air (Keegan, 1989).7.2. Pricing StrategyIn marketing mix, price is considered as one of the factor that contributes to the total value of product offering. Despite the high quality of the product, if the price strategy does no reflect value (which means the value gained from the purchase is greater than the value of money sacrificed for the purchase), then customers would not be appealed to the product. Price has been the most important consideration in buying air conditioner machines for years. Because of the highly advanced technology and the power needed to perform the task of regulating air throughout the surrounding environment, the average air conditioners cost qu ite a fortune.In terms of Enervent, I draw a bead on a new set of pricing considerations which emphasis on acknowledgement of the segments in which the product will be marketed. In other words, the pricing strategy should reflect discounts, bonuses, price competitiveness, etc. Nevertheless, managers cannot ignore the wideness of having a valuable product. The psycography of customers sometimes generates new understanding over the behavior of consumers. For one, consumer often mistaken quality with price. Often we find that if we charge higher, people would buy the product more. Managers in charge of the pricing strategy must have considerable sensitiveness toward the behavior of his/her customers.7.3. Distribution strategyDistribution is also a factor in marketing and selling products. Companies must have provided their officers with sufficient funding in order to prevent lack of funding in the delivery process. Often, the assignment on distribution is in line with order processin g stages. In a sense, distribution is an inseparable part of order processing and the process is not over until the products are delivered successfully to customers. In terms of exporting the Enervent, managers of the distribution process should tack all the necessary export preparation and accompaniment. Often shipments failed because of the lack of diligence in preparing the required documentation (Basche, 1971).Distribution management includes managing the cost of distribution. In we are to export Enervent as a part of our key operations, than it is important for us to assign the distribution cost to the recipient instead of to our own cost structure. packaging freight is crucial in distribution management. Managers of distribution process must also pay attention to other supporting issues like insurance and arbitration. The lack consideration of these small factors could generate problems in subsequently days.In distributing the Enervent, we must also consider the fact that inventory support is crucial for distribution process. schedule management and warehousing strategies must be accounted to the nature of the product to prevent losses or small-scale product quality.7.4. Promotional activitiesIn terms of advertising and promotion, we have discussed the need to represent Enervent in different ways for different market segments. On the other hand, if reality forces us to choose, we must choose to represent the largest demands on the market. In the Enevernet case, this means promoting the product as the new generation of air conditioning. Promotions can be performed through indirect forms, like literature, direct mail, etc. There are also a more direct form of promotion which includes exhibitions and trade shows.Often, the presence of a good sales force is also influential to promotional activities. In marketing Enervent, managerial abilities to motivate sales forces are important to promotional activities. This is important considering the product i s new in the market. Another way of motivating the promotional activities is by using agents. External agents who receive commissions are generally more motivated to do their job because of the compensation strategy. graphic symbolAir Pollution Might Affect Lung Development in Children, Study Finds. 2004. Retrieved May 9, 2007 from http//www.californiahealthline.org/index.cfm?Action=dspItemitemID=105505ARI CoolNet. Air Conditioning Improving the Way We Live. Retrieved May 9, 2007 from http//www.ari.org/consumer/history/history-ac.htmlBasche, J.R. Jr. Export Marketing Services and Costs. 1971. New York The Conference Board, p4.Cunningham, M.T. Strategies for International Industrial Marketing. 1986. In D.W. Turnbull and J.P. Valla (eds.) Croom Helm p 9.Delonghi. Delonghi Portable Air Conditioners Delonghi Portable Air Conditioning. 2007. Retrieved May 7, from http//www.delonghi-portable-air-conditioners.co.uk/images/3176.jpgKorey, G. Multilateral Perspectives in International Mark eting Dynamics. 1986. European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 20, No. 7, pp 34-42Keegan, W.J. Global Marketing Management. 1989. Prentice Hall International Editions.OK CHINA INDUSTRIAL LTD. Wholesale Air conditioner. 2007. Retrieved May 7, 2007 from http//www.sz-wholesale.com/shenzhen_China_products/Air-conditioner_1.htmPiercy, N. follow Internationalisation Active and Reactive Exporting. 1982. European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp 26-40.Saudi Aircon 2007. 2007. Riyadh Exhibitions. Retrieved May 9, 2007 from http//www.recexpo.com/recweb/show_overview.asp?id=79US Market for Air Conditioning. Worldwide Market Intelligence. Retrieved May 9, 2007 from www.bsria.co.uk/documents/pdf/misc/17200 leaflet.pdfWard, Susan. How to Find and Master a recession Market. 2007. Retrieved May 9, 2007 from http//marketing.about.com/od/careersinmarketing/l/aa060303a.htmWind of change in air-conditioning market. 2006. China Economic Net. Retrieved May 9, 2007 from http//www.chinadaily.com.cn/ fa ce/doc/2005-04/27/content_437865.htm
Monday, April 15, 2019
Activation Of T Lymphocytes EssayDifferent sheaths of T lymphocytes exist and each graphic symbol performs a specialized function. Helper T stalls, also known as TH booths, serve as messengers of the immune dodge. When retainer T booths argon propeld, these cells proliferate and produce cytokines, which ar small proteins that control the result of immune response that a biological organism will express. Several types of cytokines exist and each cytokine triggers the ripening of helper T cells into bumpicularised subtypes such as helper T cell subtype 1, 2 and 17 (Balandina et al. , 2005).Another type of T lymphocyte is the cytotoxic T cell (CTL), which is also known as the TC cell. Cytotoxic T cells atomic number 18 responsible for the closing of cells that were infected by viruses, as rise up as for the annihilation of tumor cells. These cells also play a major role in determine whether a cell is normally part of the system or a foreign cell. Cytotoxic T cells atomic number 18 known to be the first in line to fight back and reject if an organ transplanted into a recipient is not compatible in terms of wind compatibility.The cytotoxic T cells that be associated with tissue rejection atomic number 18 designated at CD8+ T cells, based on the idea that these cytotoxic T cells produce a particular(prenominal) CD8 glycoprotein that is displayed on its cell membrane. These CD8 glycoproteins interact with helper T lymphocytes, of which may trigger its transformation into regulative T cells. The major role of restrictive T cells is to inhibit the outpouring of an autoimmune dis monastic order indoors the system of the organism.Another type of T lymphocyte is the memory T cell which is produced as short as an infection occurs in an individual. These ad hoc T cells continue to circulate in the blood system for several months even when the infection has been stopped. Memory T cells further differentiate into effector T cells when they str ike the same antigen that was associated with the previous infection, hence the term memory is appropriate to apply to this type of function. Two usual types of memory T cells include the central and effector cells. Memory T cells are known to obtain either the CD4 or the CD8 glycoprotein on its plasma membrane (Wildin et al., 2001).Regulatory T cells are another type of T lymphocytes that play a crucial role in sustaining the tolerance of the immune system (Khattri et al., 2003). These T cells were earlier called suppressor T cells and their primary role is to prevent immunity that is caused by other T cells during the later stages of an immune response (Fontenot et al., 2003). Regulatory T cells are also responsible for inhibiting the immune answer towards other cells of the body or self cells because this is important in maintaining the stability of the perfect immunological system. circumstantial conditions result in the immune response towards self cells and this is unrem arkably observed when the thymus experiences ambitiousy in distinguishing self cells from non-self or foreign cells. There are dickens major types of CD4+ regulatory T cells that sport been characterized. Naturally occurring regulatory T cells originate from the thymus and are sometimes referred to as CD4/CD25/ForP3 T regulatory cells.The other major type of CD4+ regulatory T cell is the adaptive T regulatory cell which is produced when an innate immune response occurs. This type of cell is also called Tr1 or Th3 cell (Hori et al., 2003). A distinguishing accept that facilitates is the differentiation of naturally occurring T regulatory cells from the rest of types of T lymphocytes is the occurrence of the FoxP3 shred that is situated deep down the cytoplasm. seek has shown that mutations incurred in the FOXP3 gene results in the inability of regulatory T cells to differentiate, which in turn influences the onset of the lethal condition of autoimmunity.Another type of T lymph ocyte is the natural killer T cell which is serves as the communicator between the adaptive and the innate immune systems. Different from the standard T lymphocyte that identifies protein antigens that are harbored by the major histocompatibility problematical (MHC), the natural killer T lymphocytes distinguish glycolipid antigens that are shown by the protein touch CD1d. The natural killer T lymphocyte is then activated and subsequently acquires the ability to execute specific functions that are related to Th and Tc cells, including the secretion of cytokines and the expression of cytolytic molecules that are responsible for the destruction of foreign cells that have invaded the body.Gamma-delta T lymphocytes represent a small subtype of T cells that carry a funny sensory receptor on their plasma membrane. Most of the T lymphocytes carry a receptor that is comprised by two strings of alpha and beta glycoproteins. In gamma-delta T lymphocytes, the receptor is composed of a gamm a and a delta glycoprotein string. Gamma-delta T lymphocytes are quite rare, comprising only approximately 5% of the entire T lymphocyte world but are found in high concentrations in the epithelial lining of the stomach, as part of population of intraepithelial lymphocytes.Protein antigens that trigger a response from gamma-delta T cells have still yet to be determined. It is evoke to know that gamma-delta T lymphocytes are not exclusively assigned to carry major histocompatibility complex molecules and are actually capable of identifying entire proteins than simply perceiving short protein chains carried by the major histocompatibility complex molecules on lymphocytes that harbor antigens.There are particular gamma-delta T cells that have the capacity to identify a specific type of major histocompatibility complex molecules, specifically consort IB. In the human immune system, the Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T lymphocyte makes up the majority of the gamma-delta T lymphocyte population that is circulating in the bloodstream. These specific T lymphocytes have the function of quickly responding to a tiny metabolite that originates from microorganisms, known as the isopentenyl pyrophosphate precursor.Another type of T lymphocyte is the autoaggressive T cell which is highly specialized based on its ability to secrete the CD40 protein molecule (Miura et al., 2004). CD40 is generally linked to T lymphocytes that present fragments of an antigen and this protein molecule is commonly produced by a subtype of T helper lymphocytes.Th40 cells are present in all human beings but the levels of this specific type of cells quickly append during conditions of autoimmunity. In patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus, the Th40 cells usually react to self-antigens. In the case of patients diagnosed with non-autoimmune individuals, the Th40 lymphocytes do not react with these antigens. An important function of the CD40 protein molecule on T lymphocytes is to trigger the recombina se proteins RAG1 and RAG2 in directing the receptor of a T lymphocyte.The receptor of a T lymphocyte serves as the route through which a T lymphocyte is able to identify a specific antigen. It has been determined that the two recombinase proteins be produced exclusively in the thymus during the sufferment of T lymphocytes. It was, however, observed that the RAG proteins were secreted again by the T lymphocytes that were circulating in the bloodstream. In addition, it was also observed that the CD40 protein associated with Th40 lymphocytes, resulting in the employment of RAG proteins. Subsequent to the expression of the RAG proteins, modifications in the receptor of the T cells take place, suggesting that the Th40 lymphocytes carry the ability to adapt for the entire duration of an individuals life.The procedure of modifying the expression of the receptors of T cells that are circulating in the bloodstream has been names as TDR revision. Research has reported that TCR revision infl uences the expansion of the repertoire of T lymphocytes, as well as generates T lymphocytes that are autoaggressive. This observation therefore shows that the revision of the receptors of T cells is another method of T lymphocyte tolerance.THE DEVELOPMENT OF T LYMPHOCYTES IN THE THYMUST lymphocytes are developed from the stem cells of the hematopoietic system which is located in the bone marrow. These stem cells migrate from the bone marrow to the thymus, where they are expected to proliferate through the serve well of cell division and generate immature thymocytes. Young thymocytes generally do not secrete any CD4 or CD8 proteins hence these cells have been described as CD4-CD8- cells.During their course of increment, the young thymocytes acquire the capability of secreting CD4 and CD8 molecules and these thymocytes are now clubified as CD4+CD8+ (Sakaguchi, 2000). Further maturation of these cells involves the specific secretion of only one protein, either the CD4 or the CD8 mo lecule. Once this has been determined in each thymocytes, these cells are then expelled by the thymus in order for them to circulate to the rest of the body. Approximately 98% of the thymocytes produced by the thymus are expected to break down during its maturation, resulting in only 2% of the thymocytes reaching maturity and categorically expelled by the thymus as immunocompetent T lymphocytes.Immature thymocytes that harbor the two types of antigens, CD4 and CD8, migrate into the core of the thymus in order to associate with antigens that are generated by the T lymphocyte. These thymocytes interact with the major histocompatibility complex molecules that are present of the plasma membrane of the cells of the epithelium. however a specific fraction of thymocytes will be able to completely bind with the major histocompatibility complex molecules thus resulting in a signal that indicates the survival of the thymocyte.The rest of the thymocytes that were not able to achieve a comple te association with the major histocompatibility complex molecules are thus classified as incapable of playing immune functions or even illicit an immune response. This specific group of thymocytes thus undergoes the process of apoptosis, which involved the disintegration of the nucleus which eventually leads to cell death. The cellular debris that results from the apoptotic pathway are enveloped and eaten by macrophages. The entire process of differentiating immuno-competent from immuno-incompetent thymocytes based on the ability to illicit an immune reaction is known as domineering selection.Thymocytes that endure positive selection travel towards the perimeter of the cortical and middle regions of the thymus. While situated in the middle region of the thymus, the thymocytes are presented with an antigen of its self in association with the major histocompatibility complex molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APCs), including the dendritic cells and macrophages. Thymocytes that intensely associate with the antigen are sent a signal that induces their programmed death and the rest of the thymocytes that were first generated are trigger to disintegrate during this selection process in the thymus.A small fraction of the cells that survived is induced to develop regulatory T cells. The other cells subsequently depart the thymus as differentiation naive T lymphocytes. This mechanism is designated as negative selection, an essential process of immunological tolerance that controls the phylogeny of T lymphocytes that react to self cells and are able of to cause an autoimmune disease in the body of an individual (Shevach, 2000).Although the specific mechanisms of activation vary slightly between different types of T cells, the two-signal model in CD4+ T cells holds professedly for most. Activation of CD4+ T cells occurs through the engagement of both the T cell receptor and CD28 on the T cell by the Major histocompatibility complex peptide and B7 family members on the APC respectively. Both are required for production of an effective immune response in the absence of CD28 co-stimulation, T cell receptor signalling alone results in anergy. The signalling pathways downstream from both CD28 and the T cell receptor involve many proteins.The first signal is provided by binding of the T cell receptor to a short peptide presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on another cell. This ensures that only a T cell with a TCR specific to that peptide is activated. The partner cell is usually a professional antigen presenting cell (APC), usually a dendritic cell in the case of nave responses, although B cells and macrophages can be important APCs. The peptides presented to CD8+ T cells by MHC class I molecules are 8-9 aminic acids in length the peptides presented to CD4+ cells by MHC class II molecules are longer, as the ends of the binding cleft of the MHC class II molecule are open.The second signal comes from co-stimulation, in which surface receptors on the APC are induced by a relatively small number of stimuli, usually products of pathogens, but sometimes dislocation products of cells, such as necrotic-bodies or heat-shock proteins (Brunkow et al., 2001). The only co-stimulatory receptor expressed constitutively by nave T cells is CD28, so co-stimulation for these cells comes from the CD80 and CD86 proteins on the APC.Other receptors are expressed upon activation of the T cell, such as OX40 and ICOS, but these mostly depend upon CD28 for their expression. The second signal licenses the T cell to respond to an antigen. Without it, the T cell becomes anergic and it becomes more difficult for it to activate in future. This mechanism prevents inappropriate responses to self, as self-peptides will not usually be presented with suited co-stimulation.The T cell receptor exists as a complex of several proteins. The actual T cell receptor is composed of two separate peptide chains which are produced from the indepe ndent T cell receptor alpha and beta (TCR? and TCR?) genes. The other proteins in the complex are the CD3 proteins CD3 and CD3 heterodimers and most significantly a CD3? homodimer which has a total of six ITAM motifs. The ITAM motifs on the CD3? can be phosphorylated by Lck and in turn recruit ZAP-70. Lck and/or ZAP-70 can also phosphorylate the tyrosines on many other molecules, not least CD28, Trim, LAT and SLP-76, which al clinical depressions the aggregation of signalling complexes close to these proteins.Phosphorylated LAT recruits SLP-76 to the membrane, where it can then bring in PLC?, VAV1, Itk and potentially PI3K. Both PLC? and PI3K act on PI(4,5)P2 on the inner leaflet of the membrane to create the active intermediaries di-acyl glycerol (DAG), inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and phosphatidlyinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3). DAG binds and activates some PKCs, most importantly in T cells PKC?, which is important for activating the transcription instruments NF-?B and AP-1. IP3 is released from the membrane by PLC? and diffuses rapidly to activate receptors on the ER which induce the release of calcium. The released calcium then activates calcineurin, and calcineurin activates NFAT, which then translocates to the nucleus. NFAT is a transcription factor which activates the transcription of a pleiotropic set of genes, most notably IL-2, a cytokine which promotes long term proliferation of activated T cells.Overview of interactions between T cells and APCs T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the cell-mediated immune response of adaptive immunity. T lymphocytes are divided into 2 major classes distinguished by the expression of the cell surface molecules CD4 or CD8. CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) primarily destroy virus-infected cells whereasCD4 helper T lymphocytes are involved in activating B cells and macrophages.The response of both classes of T lymphocytes is dependent on interactions through the T cell receptor (T CR) and coreceptors (CD4 or CD8) with target APCs that present peptides in the context of MHC class I or class II molecules. MHC class I and class II molecules are structurally similar but differ in their source of antigenic peptide and in the transport mechanisms for their peptides. Class I MHC molecules present self peptides or viral products from the cytosolto CD8 T lymphocytes, whereas MHC class II molecules present peptides from pathogens that either reside or were endocytosed into intracellular compartments (Fontenot and Rudensky, 2005). T cells are activated on encountering antigen, which results in either lysis of target cells by CD8T lymphocytes or recruitment of other effector cells by CD4 cells. Modulation of the plasma membrane alters the T cell Ca2+ response. A series of studies from showedthat unsaturated free fatty acids (FFAs) could inhibit specific aspects of cytotoxic T cell function by perturbing membranes. Initially, it was shown that short-term exposure of murin e allogeneic effector T cells to low levels of unsaturated FFAs (10 mol/L), including PUFAs, inhibited lysis of target APCs. The change in lysis of target cells was a direct backwash of the FFA added to the CTLs, because lysis could be inhibited byextracting the unsaturated FFA with bovine serum albumin before CTL-target conjugation. Specific aspects of T cell function inhibited by unsaturated lipids included the initial rise in intracellular Ca2+ on conjugate formation, protein phosphorylationevents and subsequent CTL esterase release. On the other hand, release of inositol phosphates and binding to target cells were unaffected. Because the inhibition in CTL calcium release linearly correlated with the decrease in membrane acyl chain order induced by the presence of increasing unsaturation in the plasma membrane , it was hypothesized that modulation of membrane organize affected T cell Ca2+ signaling.ReferencesBalandina A, Lecart S, Dartevelle P, Saoudi A and Berrih-Aknin S (2005 ) Functional defect of regulatory CD4()CD25T cells in the thymus of patients with autoimmune myasthenia gravis. kindred 105735741.Brunkow ME, Jeffery EW, Hjerrild KA, Paeper B, Clark LB, Yasayko SA, Wilkinson JE, Galas D, Ziegler SF and Ramsdell F (2001) Disruption of a new forkhead/winged-helix protein, scurfin, results in the fatal lymphoproliferative disorder of the scurfy mouse. Nat. Genet. 276873.Fontenot JD, Gavin MA and Rudensky AY (2003) Foxp3 programs the development and function of CD4-CD25 regulatory T cells. Nat. Immunol. 4330336.Fontenot JD and Rudensky AY (2005) A well adapted regulatory contrivance Regulatory T cell development and the forkhead family transcription factor Foxp3. Nat. Immunol. 6331337.Hori S, Nomura T and Sakaguchi S (2003) Control of regulatory T cell development by the transcription factor Foxp3. Science 29910571061Khattri R, Cox T, Yasayko SA and Ramsdell F (2003) An essential role for Scurfin in CD4-CD25 T regulatory cells. Nat. Immunol. 4337342.M iura Y, Thoburn CJ, Bright EC, Phelps ML, Shin T, Matsui EC, Matsui WH, Arai S, Fuchs EJ and Vogelsang GB (2004) Association of Foxp3 regulatory gene expression with graft-versus-host disease. Blood 10421872193.Sakaguchi S (2000) Regulatory T cells key controllers of immunologic self-tolerance. Cell 101455458.Shevach EM (2000) Regulatory T cells in autoimmmunity. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 18423449.Wildin RS, Ramsdell F, Peake J, Faravelli F, Casanova JL, Buist N, Levy-Lahad E, Mazzella M, Goulet O and Perroni L (2001) X-linked neonatal diabetes mellitus, enteropathy and endocrinopathy syndrome is the human equivalent of mouse scurfy. Nat. Genet. 271820.
Sunday, April 14, 2019
Child Study Paper EssayThe Child Study data I fill ga thered comes from the mirror image I have comp allowed at Mission Bell chief(a) School. Mission Bell Elementary School is a local school in Riverside. In the P. M preschool class there ar 24 students, matchless t to each oneer, and one assistant. The child I decided to go along is names Zoe. Zoe is 4 years and 10 months old. I immediately was drawn to Zoe beca commit she had such a boastfully personality, was in truth social, and smart. I am glad that I choose to observe Zoe because she was equal to(p) to make my observation process smooth and easy. While observing her I had to pay close attention to her biosocial development, ram skills, cognitive skills, talk skills, emotional development, social interaction, and her self-esteem. As I sh be my observation data, I will die examples of Zoes skills and overall development thus far in her life. Biosocial Development Physical Description fit to biosocial developmen t norms Zoe is average. She is just the size she is suppose to be fit in the growth chart and development norms. Zoe is lanky and lean. She is on the skinny side and has long arms and legs and a flat stomach.Zoe weighs 36 pounds and is 39. 75 inches tall. On the growth chart Zoe is in the 50th percentile (CDC 2000) when it comes to her weight and is in the 25th percentile (CDC 200) when it comes to her height. From these percentages on the growth chart Zoe is falling right in the middle when it comes to her physical development, masking that she is growing at a normal expected rate. Zoe dis make ups an above average activity level in comparison to her peers. She has such a high activity level compared to the otherwise children because egress of them all she is the one that keeps busy.When indoor(a) adopt cartridge holder comes just about Zoe is sure to repair at as umpteen bend carrys as she can. Zoe averages about 5 to 6 play brands. Zoe chooses to play at a bit of di fferent areas, whereas, many of the other children just get approximatelywhat to two different play stations. At each station Zoe spends 41/2 to 5 minutes playing, visualizeing that Zoes ratio of active running around periods out weight the inactive sitting and playing periods. Motor Skills Zoe does a does a good caper at controlling her gross-motor skills as tumesce as her fine motor skills.Zoe has good balance and advance for a 4 year old. When Zoes gross-motor skills are compared to her classmates you notice her advancement. She does not stumble over her feet or object such as the carpet, as much as her peers do. When Zoe is outside her favourite(a) activity is to play on the jungle gym. This activity is able to show Zoes good development of gross-motor skills because of how she is able to put on up and down the stairs of the jungle gym and with such speed. Many children by age 2 become smooth and rhythmic secure enough that soon they leave the ground. (Berk, 2007, P. 224). Zoe has mastered her fine motor skills.Zoe is able to correctly hold makeup objects such as markers and crayons she likewise holds paste sticks in the writing position. She holds the maker or writing object in between her thumb and her middle finger and allows her world power to help support her writing shit. By having this technique down Zoe is able to control the lines that she makes on her makeup as hearty as how dark her lines will be. She is also able to manipulate how much glue is going to go onto her paper and where it will go.In comparison to Hayliegh (3-8), who is still holding her writing tool with her palm, Zoe shows she is more advance in her fine motor skill. While playing at one of her favorite indoor play stations, which is play start, Zoe uses her hands to manipulate the play booty into various shapes and objects. The way she is able to grasp and squeeze the play dough shows her sensatory skills, which are in connection to her fine motor skills. These two examples show that Zoe has master over her hands and how they will work to her advantage.As Zoe continues to play her favorite activity, the jungle gym, with such balance and speed she shows that she is comfortable with her movements. This is one of her favorite activities because it allows her to run around and get out her energy. Zoe favorite game, and only game she plays, are the computer games. Zoe will avoid such games as posting games simply will go and play on the computer when she can. The games on the computer help her to fit how to control an object such as the mouse and pointer. This helps Zoe in the development of her fine motor skills.Zoes favorite table game is play dough. The play dough station is forever the first station that Zoe goes to if she is picked to go their. At this station Zoe again uses her fine motor skills to create all different references of objects with her play dough. Cognitive Skills While closely observing Zoes cognitive skills she showe d evidence of Piagets preoperational stage. Zoes cognitive development is shown through her make-believe play. Piaget believed that through pretending, young children practice and strengthen unfermentedly acquired representational schemes. (Berk, 2007, P 227).When Zoe plays with her play dough she pretend that she is making pizza. She begins by taking a handful of play dough and placing it on the table, she then get a small rolling pin to roll the play dough out flat. Once the play dough is rolled out completely flat she uses precise Legos to represent the pepperoni that tops most pizzas. Next she takes the finished pizza and puts it on the side of the table and pretends to high temperature it in an oven. The takes the play dough and begins to feed her friends. When Zoe decides to not just feed herself but her friends as well she is showing development of no longer being self-centered.This whole make believe shows how far Zoes Cognitive skills have developed. She is able to tak e something she see and act it out and think about the recount in which she acts out each piece. Zoe has knowledge of classification and seriation along with her representation skills. Zoe shows that she is capable of classifying objects as well as putting them in sequence. She shows evidence of classification during clean up beat. When it is time to clean up each toy has its own space and toys that are a like go into spaces next to each other.Zoe is able to identify objects and according to the likely ness of one to the other she can tell hold out or not the go in the same area. For example Zoe is able to identify that the blocks and the Legos go into the same area but that they are different. She is also able to recognize that the entire book are books but able to classify them according to their size. She put forth all the big books on one side of the bookshelf where they belong and all of the smaller books on the oppsite side where they belong.Zoe also knows sequence of numb ers. She shows this when she is called up to be the calendar girl for he day. Zoe takes down all the numbers from one to 15 off of the calendar. thence one by one puts them back up in sequence. She also recognizes the patter of the numbers. Each number is written on an insect. As she puts up the numbers she realizes that the patters of insects are caterpillar, lady bug, butterfly, caterpillar, lady bug, butterfly and so on. Zoe shows the ability to imitate real life through her play. When she creates pizza with play dough and Legos she is showing that she understands how to create something from what she has seen and experienced.She shows that she understands how something that is not the original object can symbolize or represent the original. Zoe also shows situation play during her play. She does show by pretending to be the baby while her friend Savanna (3-11) plays the mother. This type of role play shows that Zoe understands the various roles that people play in life. Through this role play you are able to see her ideas on life. Zoe shows her perception of how a baby is to act and how they should respond to their mother. By Zoe crawls around on the floor and talks baby talk shows how she views babies.Lastly Zoe shows special interest in activities that see imitation play. She likes to create things that she sees and experiences in her life. This ability to imitate reality shows her cognitive growth. Communication Zoe uses wide variations of communication. Zoe uses her trunk language, nervus facialis expressions, and verbal communication all at once when she is explaining or expressing herself. All these combined show off Zoes personality. When Zoe legal injury her foot on the table Zoe used her body language to show that she was in pain. She immediately bends down to rub her foot in try to make it feel better. and then her wincing face showed that it was not helping. As Zoe dragged her body over to the teacher she then verbalized the pain that she w as in. She evince the teacher, I hurt my foot. Zoe is very good at exaggerating her expressions and really showing how she feels on her face. If she is quick-witted she has a big simile, if she is shad she is frowning, and if she is hurt she is wincing and showing pain on her face. Her facial expressions do a crew of the verbal communication she might not do or it tells her feelings before her words do. When Zoe interacts with her friends she is very excite and humorous.She is very big in her movements and throws up her arms and puts out her hands as gestures when she is speaking. When she is very hallucinating about what it is she is telling her peers she is very big in her gestures and when she is calm she uses one hand when gesturing. Zoe has a very good vocabulary and is the talkative one of the group. She is also known for her slang vocabulary. Sometimes this slang that she uses from time to time goes a little too far and she can get into trouble. intimidate (3-5) did jus that told on Zoe and got her into trouble.Hector told the teacher that Zoe told him, What the heck. Zoe was then told that she should not use that word. Zoe is also very descriptive in her speech. She once told the teacher, Mrs. Contreras, I made a red strawberry. Zoe is extremely talkative and this helps aid her in learning and broaden her vocabulary, as well as learning how to express her self. Emotions Zoe is at the Initiative versus Guilt stage according to Eriksons personality development theory (Berk, 2007). Evidence of this is show when Zoe is eager to join her class peers in various activities.In particular when it is library time Zoe likes to thumb through her book initially by herself like she is told to do but it excited when she is able to share her book with a few environ friends, or listen to a surrounding friend share their book with others. When it comes to creating a new impression or trying a new activity Zoe becomes excited to participate and learn something new. This took place when she had the luck to create a caterpillar. She learned how many circles she requireed to make the caterpillar and where to glue on the legs of the caterpillar.Zoe also shows evidence of autonomy because she is able to use her mental development and sense to determine and recognize that she has to use the restroom. When it comes to Zoes Temperament she is not moody. She consistently is riant and friendly unless she gets hurt or someone copies her. She is commonly very approachable and social with everyone. Her response compulsoryly when it comes to playing with someone new at each play station that she goes to. She also is good at sharing. For example, when Zoe goes to play on the computer she shares the mouse with the other student and takes turns clicking on the computer.She works together with her peer to find the right answer to the question on the computer. Since Zoe is good at sharing this makes her approachable and fun to play with. When it comes t o Zoes intensity of her reactions she is directly in the middle. She is not a loud child but also not quiet. She also is good at having self control and not having tantrums. She does have very out there over the top facial expressions and gestures but not so much to make her an intense child. Zoe is also positive in her mood. If she is hurt or irritated she will tend to come down from her usually happy smiley mood. Zoe is usually happy and playful.Zoe is just about always in a very positive mood and a frolic to be around. However, Zoe does show a broad range of emotions during her observation. She showed happiness while she was interacting with her peers, and she also displayed the feeling of being hurt, when she stubbed her toe on the table. Zoe displays knowledge of how to express herself emotionally. Social Interaction Zoe is very social and interacts with everyone. Zoe is always interacting with new peers when she is indoors going from one play station to the other. Zoe is a li ttle different from the other girls in that she has no problem interacting with the boys.Around lunch time Zoe joins in when Dillon (4-7) is pretending to be a superhero. Zoe joins in and pretends to be a super cat. When Zoe does interact with her peers it is in a small group of maybe 3 at the most. Zoe never tends to be around large groups. Mostly you will see Zoe one on one with another peer. Zoe tends to go towards the sensatory play then the make believe play. When Zoe has a choice of an indoor play station she always goes for the play dough first. After that Zoe will do arts and crafts that refer gluing or draw a picture. By the end Zoe always ends up at the Sand table.These trio types of play that Zoe consistently participates in are all dealing with her sensatory skills or fine motor skills. These are Zoes favorite types of play because she enjoys playing with things that involve her hands, since she is good at them. Zoe has a secure addition to her mother, teachers, and peers. When Zoes mother came to visit the class she did not attach herself to her mother while she was present. Zoe recognized she was there and called on her if she needed help but she did not play at the table that her mom was at just because she wanted to be next to her.Zoe continued to do her own thing. Zoe is also not prone to any particular peer in the classroom. She demonstrates this by sitting at a new lunch table with someone new with each observation. She also plays with someone new at each play station. Some of the other children especially girls are attached to one another each observation. They will always sit together at lunch and play together in both indoor and outdoorsy play time, but not Zoe. Self Esteem Zoe displays confidence and high self-esteem. She indicates that she has a very positive outlook of herself through her expressions.When Zoe does something correct she wants everyone to know. For example when Zoe did a good job of cleaning up her blow and helpin g her peers pick up wooden blocks she went to the teacher Mrs. Contreras to show her what she had make. Zoe will not shy away form getting others to acknowledge her feelings weather positive or negative. This shows that Zoe is confident(p) and knows when she is doing good and not doing well. Zoe is confident enough to speek up when she wants to. Zoe is her own motivation. She is a self starter and inescapably little direction.When it is reading time Zoe will get her book and begin reading. While most of her other peers need a admonisher to sit quietly and look at their book, Zoe doesnt. Zoe will also do things when she is asked and will not need a motivation to do it, like and incentive or a reason. Zoe might need some help with staying focused for more than five minutes on one task, but when it comes to starting a task Zoe will not waste time getting to it and starting it. Zoe usually needs little direction and makes up her mind fairly quick when it comes to deciding where she w ants to play and what she wants to do.She needs little self direction and Zoe tends to play at areas where she will receive as less direction as possible. Zoe is soaked-minded and is able to handle her own. She has no problem with playing alone and being by herself. She enjoys the company from her peers but she is able to entertain herself. She doesnt need to have other peers around her in order for her to have fun. She also is more of a leader and to be a leader you have to have an autarkical sprit. Zoe has other peers who follow her around and does what she wants to do. Since Zoe is not a follower she is showing she is not dependent on other but is independent.Conclusion Zoe displays a number of strengths as well as areas that she can mend. Zoe is strong in her fine motor skills. The way she is able to control her writing tool and where her lines will go on her paper and how dark they will be. She is also able to stay inside of the lines. These examples show that Zoe has done a good job of developing her fine motor skills. Zoe is also very good with her communication skills. She knows how to express herself correctly and clearly. She is able to not only use her body language and facial features to let show one know what she is feeling but she is able to verbalize it.Zoe can afford to improve on her attention span. Zoe tends to be easily distracted by the idea of moving on to something else. She needs to learn how to focus on one thing instead of trying them all. She needs to learn how to liberate and be persistent in what she is working on. Overall I have enjoyed the opportunity of observing Zoe. She has taught me various things about the development of a preschooler. I plan on remembering this observation and using it as I go on to my future career working with children.