Saturday, August 31, 2019
There is considerable evidence that many of the new medical technologies are used inappropriately, to generate income. What patient protections against inappropriate diagnostic and other procedures should be considered? There is no doubt that the new diagnostic and therapeutic technology now available has vastly expanded the economic dimensions of medicine, there is evidence that new and expensive technologies are being used inappropriately to generate income. One example of this statement would be the use of magnetic resonance imaging or MRIs. The popularity of this testing has skyrocketed and has in turn been found to be very profitable for hospitals and outpatient facilities. Despite the swooping popularity and booming financial boost this testing has been found not to have changed patient outcomes. The testing gives providers a clear look at the disease or anatomy being scanned there are no controlled comparisons of diagnostic accuracy or changes in medical or therapeutic care for patients (Sultz and Young, 2011). Therefore this new and innovative testing only adds to the cost of the already terribly high dollar of health care. Physicians now have many choices to make and many opportunities to generate income through the use of these and many more new technologies both in the office and hospital settings. The issue is that medical indications for the use of much of the new technology are not precisely causing problems and susceptible influence by economic factors. The range of acceptable options in a given case is often wide enough to give the provider considerable latitude in his/her choice of procedures. It is in this gray zone that economic incentives have their greatest effect on medical behavior (Relman,Ã 2011). I do not believe that providers make decisions based on economic consideration and outcome that they would not decide otherwise. I believe with all of my heart that for the most part providers do things the majority of the time to do right by the patient and the pocketbook. The problem is, however, Ã¢â¬Å"the right thingÃ¢â¬ is often a matter of opinion because many tests, procedures, and operations have not yet been fully evaluated or scientifically compared with other available measures for cost effectiveness. Is it possible though pressure of financial advantage often sways those good-hearted providers or is it simply to pacify or satisfy patients? To expand on pacification or satisfaction or patients I will use my area of expertise. I have worked in the area of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s health most of my career so though I am sure there are other areas of specialty with patients such as ours I can only state from true experience that this is a very high-maintained population. This is a media savvy, device driven; patient population that often wants Ã¢â¬Å"drive-thruÃ¢â¬ service. The issues I see to often are the ordering of tests, labs, procedures that may be unnecessary or cause greater consequence. There are high-technology screenings for every atypical cell we could possibly have on a female reproductive organ. As soon as a pre-menopausal women with heavy bleeding hears that she may have a positive result she wants a hysterectomy. Though this may be the treatment for some, it is not for all a nd I see way too many women loose their uterus for reasons that were much more benign than the outcome. Being in healthcare for so many years I could give example after example of new high technology that may be used inappropriately for reasons that could be generating income, but done simply for the benefit of the patient and their satisfaction. Patient satisfaction brings a whole new topic of conversation to generating income. So how can we protect patients from potentially themselves or those that provide the ordering power that initiates this vicious cycle? I think first we have to mandate facilities and practices to put in place guidelines and protocols to stop unnecessary testing that has been shown not to change the patient outcome. Another intervention and protection to patients is that providers have to have conversations with patients honestly about what the issue is and that they do not need particular testing if asked for. They need to keep it real with patients. It is true that patient satisfaction is going to be at jeopardyÃ and that they may want to jump providers, but providers and facilities will need to seriously look at the risk benefit of doing procedures that will not weigh up in a court of law or a court of public opinion. In spite of nursingÃ¢â¬â¢s vital importance to hospitals, nurses face excessive paperwork, managerial responsibilities, and supervision of lesser-trained aides Ã¢â¬â tasks that require an inordinate amount of time spent in functions other than direct patient care. These frustrations, combined with long work hours, stagnant salaries, and other difficulties, have resulted in fewer entrants to schools of nursing and increasing numbers of nurses leaving the profession. Discuss possible solutions to this growing problem. Do providers in the health care system recognize a broader social mission than addressing the needs of only those individuals who achieve access to their services? Elaborate. Relman, A. (2011). Cost control, doctorsÃ¢â¬â¢ ethics, and patient care. Retrieved from http://www.issues.org/19.4/updated/relman.pdf.
1.Ã¢â¬ËMagical UrbanismÃ¢â¬â¢ is the term that Mike Davis uses to describe the situation of the Latinos in urban America.Ã They have moved into the United States and immediately formed subgroups of their own within established cities, and yet unlike other minority ethnic groups their numbers are growing in size and they are developing the ability to seriously affect politics of not only their current country of residence but Mexico by way of California and New York.Ã Magical urbanism is the power of these minority groups to grow and become capable of such social influence while being comprised of poverty stricken citizens who as individuals have little influence over local or state affairs. 2.Immigrants tend to be poor because of the social factors that are inflicted on them at the time of arrival in their new country of residence.Ã Like in the case of Latinos in America, immigrants can find themselves without an established social support structure based on family and friends.Ã Networks like these are important to everyone, regardless of citizenship status.Ã You need a network of employer references, rental accommodation references, credit references, and failing all of those, close relatives and friends who can support you until you have achieved all of these things anew in a different nation. 3.Lack of Opportunity:Ã We are raised to believe that opportunity is everywhere around us; that all we need to do is reach out and grab it with both hands.Ã When it comes to immigrants, however, it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t so simple.Ã These people can come to the United States with very few resources from which to both identify and make use of the opportunities for success that are clear to those of us who have grown up here and understand the social system.Ã This factor can be identified as part of the Ã¢â¬Ëculture of povertyÃ¢â¬â¢, as it is inherent in virtually all immigrant groups everywhere. Hard Work:Ã Hard work; itÃ¢â¬â¢s what you expect to do to climb the ladder of social success in any city.Ã Money and quality of life does not come of idleness, and for people of minority status this is no secret.Ã The national spirit suggests that all you need to do is work hard, and you will be able to achieve your dreams Ã¢â¬â this is not exactly the case with the poor people of color in America, who may have several family members working long, hard hours and only bringing in minimum wages.Ã This is another factor in the culture of poverty. Institutional discrimination: Ã Established social systems can tend to work against immigrant groups.Ã In America there is a lot of employer legislation that requires university educated workers, American educated workers or a native grasp of English before anyone can be hired on.Ã Jobs that do not require these things will be the minimum wage occupations with very little room for growth or improvement.Ã Unless immigrants have the primary resources necessary to start a business or become educated after relocating, they will find themselves caught in the poverty trap.Ã This is purely a structural explanation of immigrant poverty, as Mike Davis explains it. Reference Davis, M (2001). Magical Urbanism: Latinos reinvent the US city. United States: Verso Press. Ã
Friday, August 30, 2019
As long as there have been human endeavors, there have been people willing to take chargeÃ¢â¬âpeople willing to plan, organize, staff, and control the work. One might say that nature abhors a vacuum and thus someone will always step forward to fill a leadership void. Probably the natural emergence of leadership grew out of our instinct for survival. In the hostile world of early humankind, food, shelter, and safety needs usually required cooperative efforts, and cooperative efforts required some form of leadership. Certainly leadership was vested in the heads of early families via the patriarchal system. The oldest member of the family was the most experienced and was presumed to be the wisest member of the family and thus was the natural leader. As families grew into tribes and tribes evolved into nations, more complex forms of leadership were required and did evolve. Division of labor and supervision practices is recorded on the earliest written record, the clay tablets of the Sumerians. In Sumerian society, as in many others since, the wisest and best leaders were thought to be the priests and other religious leaders. Likewise, the ancient Babylonian cities developed very strict codes, such as the code of Hammurabi. King Nebuchadnezzar used color codes to control production of the hanging gardens, and there were weekly and annual reports, norms for productivity, and rewards for piecework. The Egyptians organized their people and their slaves to build their cities and pyramids. Construction of one pyramid, around 5000 BC. , required the labor of 100,000 people working for approximately 20 years. Planning, organizing, and controlling were essential elements of that and other feats, many of them long term. The ancient Egyptian Pharaohs had long-term planners and advisors, as did their contemporaries in China. China perfected military organization based on line and staff principles and used these same principles in the early Chinese dynasties. Confucius wrote parables that offered practical suggestions for public administration. In the Old Testament, Moses led a group of Jewish slaves out of Egypt and then organized them into a nation. Exodus, Chapter 18, describes how Moses Ã¢â¬Å"chose able men out of all Israel and made them heads over the people, and differentiated between rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties and rulers of tens. A system of judges also evolved, with only the hard cases coming to Moses. The city-states of Greece were commonwealths, with councils, courts, administrative officials, and boards of generals. Socrates talked about management as a skill separate from technical knowledge and experience. Plato wrote about specialization and proposed notions of a healthy republic. The Roman Empire is thought by many to have been so successful because of the RomansÃ¢â¬â¢ great ability to organize the military and conquer new lands. Those sent to govern the far-flung parts of the empire were effective administrators and were able to maintain relationships with leaders from other provinces and across the empire as a whole. There are numerous other ancient leaders who were skillful organizers, at least as indicated by their accomplishments, such as Hannibal, who shepherded an army across the Alps, and the first emperor of China, who built the Great Wall. Many of the practices employed today in leading, managing, and administering modern organizations have their origins in antiquity. Many concepts of authority developed in a religious context. One example is the Roman Catholic Church with its efficient formal organization and management techniques. The chain of command or path of authority, including the concept of specialization, was a most important contribution to management theory. Machiavelli also wrote about authority, stressing that it comes from the consent of the masses. However, the ideas Machiavelli expressed in The Prince are more often viewed as mainly concerned with leadership and communication. Much management theory has military origins, probably because efficiency and effectiveness are essential for success in warfare. The concepts of unity of command, line of command, staff advisors, and division of work all can be traced back at least to Alexander the Great, or even earlier, to Lao Tzu. The Industrial Revolution created a need for new thinking and the refinement of old thinking. Time and motion studies intensified the division of work, as did centralized production and research and development. Modern management theory prevails afterwards. The preceding historical review indicates that thinking about management and leadership is in large part situational and that practices evolved to deal with new situations that arose. It also indicates that yesterdayÃ¢â¬â¢s principles and theories are surprisingly contemporary and surprisingly sophisticated. Some overlap occurs, of course, and some gaps. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s theorists have attempted to fill in the gaps and adapt the theories to current situations. Yet, like in other areas of thought, not much is of recent origin in the field of management theory. The Evolution of Management Changes in management practices occur as managers, theorists, researchers, and consultants seek new ways to increase organizational efficiency and effectiveness. The driving force behind the evolution of management theory is the search for better ways to utilize organizational resources. Advances in management theory typically occur as managers and researchers find better ways to perform the principal management tasks: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling human and other organizational resources. In this paper, we will try to examine how management theory concerning appropriate management practices has evolved in modern times, and look at the central concerns that have guided its development. First, we look into the so-called classical management theories that emerged around the turn of the twentieth century. These include scientific management, which focuses on matching people and tasks to maximize efficiency; and administrative management, which focuses on identifying the principles that will lead to the creation of the most efficient system of organization and management. Next, we consider behavioral management theories, developed both before and after the Second World War, which focus on how managers should lead and control their workforces to increase performance. Then we discuss management science theory, which developed during the Second World War and which has become increasingly important as researchers have developed rigorous analytical and quantitative techniques to help managers measure and control organizational performance. Finally, we discuss business in the 1960s and 1970s and focus on the theories that were developed to help explain how the external environment affects the way organizations and managers operate. At the end of this paper, one will understand the ways in which management theory has evolved over time. One will also understand how economic, political, and cultural forces have affected the development of these theories and the ways in which managers and their organizations behave. Figure 1. 1 summarizes the chronology of the management theories that are discussed in this paper. Scientific Management Theory The evolution of modern management began in the closing decades of the nineteenth century, after the industrial revolution had swept through Europe, Canada, and the United States. In the new economic climate, managers of all types of organizationsÃ¢â¬âpolitical, educational, and economicÃ¢â¬âwere increasingly trying to find better ways to satisfy customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. Many major economic, technical, and cultural changes were taking place at this time. The introduction of steam power and the development of sophisticated machinery and equipment changed the way in which goods were produced, particularly in the weaving and clothing industries. Small workshops run by skilled workers who produced hand-manufactured products (a system called crafts production) were being replaced by large factories in which sophisticated machines controlled by hundreds or even thousands of unskilled or semiskilled workers made products. Owners and managers of the new factories found themselves unprepared for the challenges accompanying the change from small-scale crafts production to large-scale mechanized manufacturing. Many of the managers and supervisors had only a technical orientation, and were unprepared for the social problems that occur when people work together in large groups (as in a factory or shop system). Managers began to search for new techniques to manage their organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ resources, and soon they began to focus on ways to increase the efficiency of the workerÃ¢â¬âtask mix. Job specialization and division of labor The famous economist Adam Smith was one of the first to look at the effects of different manufacturing systems. 7 He compared the relative performance of two different manufacturing methods. The first was similar to crafts-style production, in which each worker was responsible for all of the 18 tasks involved in producing a pin. The other had each worker performing only 1 or a few of the 18 tasks that go into making a completed pin. Smith found that factories in which workers specialized in only 1 or a few tasks had greater performance than factories in which each worker performed all 18 pin-making tasks. In fact, Smith found that 10 workers specializing in a particular task could, between them, make 48 000 pins a day, whereas those workers who performed all the tasks could make only a few thousand at most. Smith reasoned that this difference in performance was due to the fact that the workers who specialized became much more skilled at their specific tasks, and, as a group, were thus able to produce a product faster than the group of workers who each had to perform many tasks. Smith concluded that increasing the level of job specializationÃ¢â¬â the process by which a division of labour occurs as different workers specialize in different tasks over timeÃ¢â¬âincreases efficiency and leads to higher organizational performance. Based on Adam SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s observations, early management practitioners and theorists focused on how managers should organize and control the work process to maximize the advantages of job specialization and the division of labour. F. W. Taylor and Scientific Management Frederick W. Taylor (1856Ã¢â¬â1915) is best known for defining the techniques of scientific management, the systematic study of relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process to increase efficiency. Taylor believed that if the amount of time and effort that each worker expended to produce a unit of output (a finished good or service) could be reduced by increasing specialization and the division of labour, then the production process would become more efficient. Taylor believed that the way to create the most efficient division of labour could best be determined by means of scientific management techniques, rather than intuitive or informal rule-of-thumb knowledge. This decision ultimately resulted in problems. For example, some managers using scientific management obtained increases in performance, but rather than sharing performance gains with workers through bonuses as Taylor had advocated, they simply increased the amount of work that each worker was expected to do. Many workers experiencing the reorganized work system found that as their performance increased, managers required them to do more work for the same pay. Workers also learned that increases in performance often meant fewer jobs and a greater threat of layoffs, because fewer workers were needed. In addition, the specialized, simplified jobs were often monotonous and repetitive, and many workers became dissatisfied with their jobs. Scientific management brought many workers more hardship than gain, and left them with a distrust of managers who did not seem to care about their wellbeing. These dissatisfied workers resisted attempts to use the new scientific management techniques and at times even withheld their job knowledge from managers to protect their jobs and pay. Unable to inspire workers to accept the new scientific management techniques for performing tasks, some organizations increased the mechanization of the work process. For example, one reason for Henry FordÃ¢â¬â¢s introduction of moving conveyor belts in his factory was the realization that when a conveyor belt controls the pace of work (instead of workers setting their own pace), workers can be pushed to perform at higher levelsÃ¢â¬âlevels that they may have thought were beyond their reach. Charlie Chaplin captured this aspect of mass production in one of the opening scenes of his famous movie, Modern Times (1936). In the film, Chaplin caricatured a new factory employee fighting to work at the machine imposed pace but losing the battle to the machine. Henry Ford also used the principles of scientific management to identify the tasks that each worker should perform on the production line and thus to determine the most effective way to create a division of labour to suit the needs of a mechanized production system. From a performance perspective, the combination of the two management practicesÃ¢â¬â (1) achieving the right mix of workerÃ¢â¬âtask specialization and (2) linking people and tasks by the speed of the production lineÃ¢â¬âmakes sense. It produces the huge savings in cost and huge increases in output that occur in large, organized work settings. For example, in 1908, managers at the Franklin Motor Company redesigned the work process using scientific management principles, and the output of cars increased from 100 cars a month to 45 cars a day; workersÃ¢â¬â¢ wages increased by only 90 percent, however. From other perspectives, though, scientific management practices raise many concerns. The definition of the workersÃ¢â¬â¢ rights not by the workers themselves but by the owners or managers as a result of the introduction of the new management practices raises an ethical issue, which we examine in this Ã¢â¬Å"Ethics in Action. Ã¢â¬ Fordism in Practice From 1908 to 1914, through trial and error, Henry FordÃ¢â¬â¢s talented team of production managers pioneered the development of the moving conveyor belt and thus changed manufacturing practices forever. Although the technical aspects of the move to mass production were a dramatic financial success for Ford and for the millions of Americans who could now afford cars, for the workers who actually produced the cars, many human and social problems resulted. With simplification of the work process, workers grew to hate the monotony of the moving conveyor belt. By 1914, FordÃ¢â¬â¢s car plants were experiencing huge employee turnoverÃ¢â¬âoften reaching levels as high as 300 or 400 percent per year as workers left because they could not handle the work-induced stress. 15 Henry Ford recognized these problems and made an announcement: From that point on, to motivate his workforce, he would reduce the length of the workday from nine hours to eight hours, and the company would double the basic wage from US$2. 50 to US$5. 00 per day. This was a dramatic increase, similar to an announcement today of an overnight doubling of the minimum wage. Ford became an internationally famous figure, and the word Ã¢â¬Å"FordismÃ¢â¬ was coined for his new approach. FordÃ¢â¬â¢s apparent generosity was matched, however, by an intense effort to control the resourcesÃ¢â¬âboth human and materialÃ¢â¬âwith which his empire was built. He employed hundreds of inspectors to check up on employees, both inside and outside his factories. In the factory, supervision was close and confining. Employees were not allowed to leave their places at the production line, and they were not permitted to talk to one another. Their job was to concentrate fully on the task at hand. Few employees could adapt to this system, and they developed ways of talking out of the sides of their mouths, like ventriloquists, and invented a form of speech that became known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Ford Lisp. Ã¢â¬ FordÃ¢â¬â¢s obsession with control brought him into greater and greater conflict with managers, who were often fired when they disagreed with him. As a result, many talented people left Ford to join his growing rivals. Outside the workplace, Ford went so far as to establish what he called the Ã¢â¬Å"Sociological DepartmentÃ¢â¬ to check up on how his employees lived and the ways in which they spent their time. Inspectors from this department visited the homes of employees and investigated their habits and problems. Employees who exhibited behaviours contrary to FordÃ¢â¬â¢s standards (for instance, if they drank too much or were always in debt) were likely to be fired. Clearly, FordÃ¢â¬â¢s effort to control his employees led him and his managers to behave in ways that today would be considered unacceptable and unethical, and in the long run would impair an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to prosper. Despite the problems of worker turnover, absenteeism, and discontent at Ford Motor Company, managers of the other car companies watched Ford reap huge gains in efficiency from the application of the new management principles. They believed that their companies would have to imitate Ford if they were to survive. They followed Taylor and used many of his followers as consultants to teach them how to adopt the techniques of scientific management. In addition, Taylor elaborated his principles in several books, including Shop Management (1903) and The detail how to apply the principles of scientific management to reorganize the work system. TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s work has had an enduring effect on the management of production systems. Managers in every organization, whether it produces goods or services, now carefully analyze the basic tasks that must be performed and try to devise the work systems that will allow their organizations to operate most efficiently. The Gilbreths Two prominent followers of Taylor were Frank Gilbreth (1868Ã¢â¬â1924) and Lillian Gilbreth (1878Ã¢â¬â1972), who refined TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis of work movements and made many contributions to time-and-motion study. Their aims were to (1) break up into each of its component actions and analyze every individual action necessary to perform a particular task, (2) find better ways to perform each component action, and (3) reorganize each of the component actions so that the action as a whole could be performed more efficientlyÃ¢â¬âat less cost of time and effort. The Gilbreths often filmed a worker performing a particular task and then separated the task actions, frame by frame, into their component movements. Their goal was to maximize the efficiency with which each individual task was performed so that gains across tasks would add up to enormous savings of time and effort. Their attempts to develop improved management principles were capturedÃ¢â¬âat times quite humorouslyÃ¢â¬âin the movie Cheaper by the Dozen, which depicts how the Gilbreths (with their 12 children) tried to live their own lives according to these efficiency principles and apply them to daily actions such as shaving, cooking, and even raising a family. Eventually, the Gilbreths became increasingly interested in the study of fatigue. They studied how the physical characteristics of the workplace contribute to job stress that often leads to fatigue and thus poor performance. They isolated factorsÃ¢â¬â such as lighting, heating, the colour of walls, and the design of tools and machinesÃ¢â¬âthat result in worker fatigue. Their pioneering studies paved the way for new advances in management theory. In workshops and factories, the work of the Gilbreths, Taylor, and many others had a major effect on the practice of management. In comparison with the old crafts system, jobs in the new system were more repetitive, boring, and monotonous as a result of the application of scientific management principles, and workers became increasingly dissatisfied. Frequently, the management of work settings became a game between workers and managers: Managers tried to initiate work practices to increase performance, and workers tried to hide the true potential efficiency of the work setting in order to protect their own well-being. Administrative management theory Side by side with scientific managers studying the personÃ¢â¬âtask mix to increase efficiency, other researchers were focusing on administrative management, the study of how to create an organizational structure that leads to high efficiency and effectiveness. Organizational structure is the system of task and authority relationships that control how employees use resources to achieve the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals. Two of the most influential views regarding the creation of efficient systems of organizational administration were developed in Europe. Max Weber, a German professor of sociology, developed one theory. Henri Fayol, the French manager who developed a model of management introduced earlier, developed the other. The Theory of Bureaucracy Max Weber (1864Ã¢â¬â1920) wrote at the turn of the twentieth century, when Germany was undergoing its industrial revolution. To help Germany manage its growing industrial enterprises at a time when it was striving to become a world power, Weber developed the principles of bureaucracyÃ¢â¬âa formal system of organization and administration designed to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. A bureaucratic system of administration is based on five principles (summarized in Figure 1. 2). Ã¢â¬ ¢ Principle 1: In a bureaucracy, a managerÃ¢â¬â¢s formal authority derives from the position he or she holds in the organization. Authority is the power to hold people accountable for their actions and to make decisions concerning the use of organizational resources. Authority gives managers the right to direct and control their subordinatesÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour to achieve organizational goals. In a bureaucratic system of administration, obedience is owed to a manager, not because of any personal qualities that he or she might possessÃ¢â¬â such as personality, wealth, or social statusÃ¢â¬âbut because the manager occupies a position that is associated with a certain level of authority and responsibility. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Principle 2: In a bureaucracy, people should occupy positions because of their performance, not because of their social standing or personal contacts. This principle was not always followed in WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s time and is often ignored today. Some organizations and industries are still affected by social networks in which personal contacts and relations, not job-related skills, influence hiring and promotional decisions. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Principle 3: The extent of each positionÃ¢â¬â¢s formal authority and task responsibilities, and its relationship to other positions in an organization, should be clearly specified. When the tasks and authority associated with various positions in the organization are clearly specified, managers and workers know what is expected of them and what to expect from each other. Moreover, an organization can hold all its employees strictly accountable for their actions when each person is completely familiar with his or her responsibilities. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Principle 4: So that authority can be exercised effectively in an organization, positions should be arranged hierarchically, so employees know whom to report to and who reports to them. Managers must create an organizational hierarchy of authority that makes it clear who reports to whom and to whom managers and workers should go if conflicts or problems arise. This principle is especially important in the armed forces, CSIS, RCMP, and other organizations that deal with sensitive issues involving possible major repercussions. It is vital that managers at high levels of the hierarchy be able to hold subordinates accountable for their actions. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Principle 5: Managers must create a well-defined system of rules, standard operating procedures, and norms so that they can effectively control behaviour within an organization. Rules are formal written instructions that specify actions to be taken under different circumstances to achieve specific goals (for example, if A happens, do B). Standard operating procedures (SOPs) are specific sets of written instructions about how to perform a certain aspect of a task. A rule might state that at the end of the workday employees are to leave their machines in good order, and a set of SOPs then specifies exactly how they should do so, itemizing which machine parts must be oiled or replaced. Norms are unwritten, informal codes of conduct that prescribe how people should act in particular situations. For example, an organizational norm in a restaurant might be that waiters should help each other if time permits. Rules, SOPs, and norms provide behavioural guidelines that improve the performance of a bureaucratic system because they specify the best ways to accomplish organizational tasks. Companies such as McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s and Wal-Mart have developed extensive rules and procedures to specify the types of behaviours that are required of their employees, such as, Ã¢â¬Å"Always greet the customer with a smile. Ã¢â¬ Weber believed that organizations that implement all five principles will establish a bureaucratic system that will improve organizational performance. The specification of positions and the use of rules and SOPs to regulate how tasks are performed make it easier for managers to organize and control the work of subordinates. Similarly, fair and equitable selection and promotion systems improve managersÃ¢â¬â¢ feelings of security, reduce stress, and encourage organizational members to act ethically and further promote the interests of the organization. If bureaucracies are not managed well, however, many problems can result. Sometimes, managers allow rules and SOPsÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å"bureaucratic red tapeÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âto become so cumbersome that decision making becomes slow and inefficient and organizations are unable to change. When managers rely too much on rules to solve problems and not enough on their own skills and judgment, their behaviour becomes inflexible. A key challenge for managers is to use bureaucratic principles to benefit, rather than harm, an organization. FayolÃ¢â¬â¢s Principles of Management Working at the same time as Weber but independently of him, Henri Fayol (1841Ã¢â¬â1925), the CEO of Comambault Mining, identified 14 principles (summarized in Table 2. ) that he believed to be essential to increasing the efficiency of the management process. Some of the principles that Fayol outlined have faded from contemporary management practices, but most have endured. The principles that Fayol and Weber set forth still provide a clear and appropriate set of guidelines that managers can use to create a work setting that makes efficient and effective use of organizational resources. These principles remain the bedrock of modern management theory; recent researchers have refined or developed them to suit modern conditions. For example, WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s and FayolÃ¢â¬â¢s concerns for equity and for establishing appropriate links between performance and reward are central themes in contemporary theories of motivation and leadership. Behavioural Management Theory The behavioural management theorists writing in the first half of the twentieth century all espoused a theme that focused on how managers should personally behave in order to motivate employees and encourage them to perform at high levels and be committed to the achievement of organizational goals. The Ã¢â¬Å"Management InsightÃ¢â¬ indicates how employees can become demoralized when managers do not treat their employees properly. Management Insight Ã¢â¬â How to Discourage Employees Catherine Robertson, owner of Vancouver-based Robertson Telecom Inc. , made headlines in February 2001 for her management policies. Robertson is a government contractor whose company operates Enquiry BC, which gives British Columbians toll-free telephone information and referral services about all provincial government programs. Female telephone operators at Robertson Telecom must wear skirts or dresses even though they never come in contact with the public. Not even dress pants are allowed. As Gillian Savage, a former employee, notes, Ã¢â¬Å"This isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a suggested thing, itÃ¢â¬â¢s an order: No pants. Ã¢â¬ Brad Roy, another former employee, claims a female Indo-Canadian employee was sent home to change when she arrived at work wearing a Punjabi suit (a long shirt over pants). The no-pants rule is not the only concern of current and former employees. Roy also said, Ã¢â¬Å"I saw some people being reprimanded for going to the washroom. While Robertson denied RoyÃ¢â¬â¢s allegation regarding washrooms, she did confirm that company policy included the no-pants rule, that employees were not allowed to bring their purses or other personal items to their desks, and that they were not allowed to drink coffee or bottled water at their desks. The company does not provide garbage cans for the employees. A g roup of current and former employees recently expressed concern with the number of rules Robertson has in place, and claimed that the rules have led to high turnover and poor morale. A current employee claims that many workers do not care whether they give out the right government phone numbers. Robertson said that she knew of no employees who were discontent, and was shocked that the policies had caused distress among employees. She defended the dress code as appropriate business attire. Robertson may have to make some adjustments in her management style. The cabinet minister responsible for Enquiry BC, Catherine MacGregor, ordered an investigation of the contractor after being contacted by The Vancouver Sun about the allegations. She noted that the skirts-only rule for women is not appropriate, and that, Ã¢â¬Å"All of our contractors are expected to fully comply with the Employment Standards Act, Workers Compensation rules and human rights legislation. Ã¢â¬ Additionally, Mary-Woo Sims, head of the BC Human Rights Commission, said dress codes canÃ¢â¬â¢t be based on gender. Thus, an employer canÃ¢â¬â¢t tell men they must wear pants (as Robertson does), but tell women they canÃ¢â¬â¢t. Ã¢â¬Å"On the face of it, it would appear to be gender discriminatory,Ã¢â¬ Sims said. The Work of Mary Parker Follett If F. W. Taylor is considered to be the father of management thought, Mary Parker Follett (1868Ã¢â¬â1933) serves as its mother. 28 Much of her writing about management and about the way managers should behave toward workers was a response to her concern that Taylor was ignoring the human side of the organization. She pointed out that management often overlooks the multitude of ways in which employees can contribute to the organization when managers allow them to participate and exercise initiative in their everyday work lives. Taylor, for example, relied on time-and-motion experts to analyze workersÃ¢â¬â¢ jobs for them. Follett, in contrast, argued that because workers know the most about their jobs, they should be involved in job analysis and managers should allow them to participate in the work development process. Follett proposed that, Ã¢â¬Å"Authority should go with knowledge Ã¢â¬ ¦ whether it is up the line or down. Ã¢â¬ In other words, if workers have the relevant knowledge, then workers, rather than managers, should be in control of the work process itself, and managers should behave as coaches and facilitatorsÃ¢â¬ânot as monitors and supervisors. In making this statement, Follett anticipated the current interest in self-managed teams and empowerment. She also recognized the importance of having managers in different departments communicate directly with each other to speed decision making. She advocated what she called Ã¢â¬Å"cross-functioningÃ¢â¬ : members of different departments working together in cross-departmental teams to accomplish projectsÃ¢â¬âan approach that is increasingly utilized today. Fayol also mentioned expertise and knowledge as important sources of managersÃ¢â¬â¢ authority, but Follett went further. She proposed that knowledge and expertise, and not managersÃ¢â¬â¢ formal authority deriving from their position in the hierarchy, should decide who would lead at any particular moment. She believed, as do many management theorists today, that power is fluid and should flow to the person who can best help the organization achieve its goals. Follett took a horizontal view of power and authority, in contrast to Fayol, who saw the formal line of authority and vertical chain of command as being most essential to effective management. FollettÃ¢â¬â¢s behavioural approach to management was very radical for its time. The Hawthorne Studies and Human Relations Probably because of its radical nature, FollettÃ¢â¬â¢s work was unappreciated by managers and researchers until quite recently. Instead, researchers continued to follow in the footsteps of Taylor and the Gilbreths. One focus was on how efficiency might be increased through improving various characteristics of the work setting, such as job specialization or the kinds of tools workers used. One series of studies was conducted from 1924 to 1932 at the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company. This research, now known as the Hawthorne studies, began as an attempt to investigate how characteristics of the work settingÃ¢â¬âspecifically the level of lighting or illuminationÃ¢â¬âaffect worker fatigue and performance. The researchers conducted an experiment in which they systematically measured worker productivity at various levels of illumination. The experiment produced some unexpected results. The researchers found that regardless of whether they raised or lowered the level of illumination, productivity increased. In fact, productivity began to fall only when the level of illumination dropped to the level of moonlight, a level at which presumably workers could no longer see well enough to do their work efficiently. The researchers found these results puzzling and invited a noted Harvard psychologist, Elton Mayo, to help them. Subsequently, it was found that many other factors also influence worker behaviour, and it was not clear what was actually influencing the Hawthorne workersÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour. However, this particular effectÃ¢â¬â which became known as the Hawthorne effectÃ¢â¬âseemed to suggest that workersÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes toward their managers affect the level of workersÃ¢â¬â¢ performance. In particular, the significant finding was that a managerÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour or leadership approach can affect performance. This finding led many researchers to turn their attention to managerial behaviour and leadership. If supervisors could be trained to behave in ways that would elicit cooperative behaviour from their subordinates, then productivity could be increased. From this view emerged the human relations movement, which advocates that supervisors be behaviourally trained to manage subordinates in ways that elicit their cooperation and increase their productivity. The importance of behavioural or human relations training became even clearer to its supporters after another series of experimentsÃ¢â¬âthe bank wiring room experiments. In a study of workers making telephone switching equipment, researchers Elton Mayo and F. J. Roethlisberger discovered that the workers, as a group, had deliberately adopted a norm of output restriction to protect their jobs. Workers who violated this informal production norm were subjected to sanctions by other group members. Those who violated group performance norms and performed above the norm were called Ã¢â¬Å"ratebustersÃ¢â¬ ; those who performed below the norm were called Ã¢â¬Å"chiselers. Ã¢â¬ The experimenters concluded that both types of workers threatened the group as a whole. Ratebusters threatened group members because they revealed to managers how fast the work could be done. Chiselers were looked down on because they were not doing their share of the work. Work-group members disciplined both ratebusters and chiselers in order to create a pace of work that the workers (not the managers) thought was fair. Thus, a work groupÃ¢â¬â¢s influence over output can be as great as the supervisorsÃ¢â¬â¢ influence. Since the work group can influence the behavior of its members, some management theorists argue that supervisors should be trained to behave in ways that gain the goodwill and cooperation of workers so that supervisors, not workers, control the level of work-group performance. One of the main implications of the Hawthorne studies was that the behavior of managers and workers in the work setting is as important in explaining the level of performance as the technical aspects of the task. Managers must understand the workings of the informal organization, the system of behavioural rules and norms that emerge in a group, when they try to manage or change behaviour in organizations. Many studies have found that, as time passes, groups often develop elaborate procedures and norms that bond members together, allowing unified action either to cooperate with management in order to raise performance or to restrict output and thwart the attainment of organizational goals. The Hawthorne studies demonstrated the importance of understanding how the feelings, thoughts, and behaviour of work-group members and managers affect performance. It was becoming increasingly clear to researchers that understanding behaviour in organizations is a complex process that is critical to increasing performance. Indeed, the increasing interest in the area of management known as organizational behaviour, the study of the factors that have an impact on how individuals and groups respond to and act in organizations, dates from these early studies. Theory X and Theory Y Several studies after the Second World War revealed how assumptions about workersÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes and behaviour affect managersÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour. Perhaps the most influential approach was developed by Douglas McGregor. He proposed that two different sets of assumptions about work attitudes and behaviours dominate the way managers think and affect how they behave in organizations. McGregor named these two contrasting sets of assumptions Theory X and Theory Y (see Figure 1. 3). THEORY X According to the assumptions of Theory X, the average worker is lazy, dislikes work, and will try to do as little as possible. Moreover, workers have little ambition and wish to avoid responsibility. Thus, the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s task is to counteract workersÃ¢â¬â¢ natural tendencies to avoid work. To keep workersÃ¢â¬â¢ performance at a high level, the manager must supervise them closely and control their behaviour by means of Ã¢â¬Å"the carrot and stickÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ârewards and punishments. Managers who accept the assumptions of Theory X design and shape the work setting to maximize their control over workersÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviours and minimize workersÃ¢â¬â¢ control over the pace of work. These managers believe that workers must be made to do what is necessary for the success of the organization, and they focus on developing rules, SOPs, and a well-defined system of rewards and punishments to control behaviour. They see little point in giving workers autonomy to solve their own problems because they think that the workforce neither expects nor desires cooperation. Theory X managers see their role as to closely monitor workers to ensure that they contribute to the production process and do not threaten product quality. Henry Ford, who closely supervised and managed his workforce, fits McGregorÃ¢â¬â¢s description of a manager who holds Theory X assumptions. THEORY Y In contrast, Theory Y assumes that workers are not inherently lazy, do not naturally dislike work, and, if given the opportunity, will do what is good for the organization. According to Theory Y, the characteristics of the work setting determine whether workers consider work to be a source of satisfaction or punishment; and managers do not need to control workersÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour closely in order to make them perform at a high level, because workers will exercise selfcontrol when they are committed to organizational goals. The implication of Theory Y, according to McGregor, is that Ã¢â¬Å"the limits of collaboration in the organizational setting are not limits of human nature but of managementÃ¢â¬â¢s ingenuity in discovering how to realize the potential represented by its human resources. It is the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s task to create a work setting that encourages commitment to organizational goals and provides opportunities for workers to be imaginative and to exercise initiative and self-direction. When managers design the organizational setting to reflect the assumptions about attitudes and behaviour suggested by Theory Y, the characteristics of the o rganization are quite different from those of an organizational setting based on Theory X. Managers who believe that workers are motivated to help the organization reach its goals can decentralize authority and give more control over the job to workers, both as individuals and in groups. In this setting, individuals and groups are still accountable for their activities, but the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s role is not to control employees but to provide support and advice, to make sure employees have the resources they need to perform their jobs, and to evaluate them on their ability to help the organization meet its goals. Henri FayolÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to administration more closely reflects the assumptions of Theory Y, rather than Theory X. Management Science Theory This theory focuses on the use of rigorous quantitative techniques to help managers make maximum use of organizational resources to produce goods and services. In essence, management science theory is a contemporary extension of scientific management, which, as developed by Taylor, also took a quantitative approach to measuring the workerÃ¢â¬âtask mix in order to raise efficiency. There are many branches of management science; each of them deals with a specific set of concerns: Quantitative management utilizes mathematical techniquesÃ¢â¬âsuch as linear and nonlinear programming, modelling, simulation, queuing theory, and chaos theoryÃ¢â¬âto help managers decide, for example, how much inventory to hold at different times of the year, where to locate a new factory, and how best to invest an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s financial capital. Resources in the organizational environment include the raw materials and skilled people that an organization requires to produce goods and services, as well as the support of groups including customers who buy these goods and services and provide the organization with financial resources. One way of determining the relative success of an organization is to consider how effective its managers are at obtaining scarce and valuable resources. The importance of studying the environment became clear after the development of open-systems theory and contingency theory during the 1960s. The Open-Systems View One of the most influential views of how an organization is affected by its external environment was developed by Daniel Katz, Robert Kahn, and James Thompson in the 1960s. 38 These theorists viewed the organization as an open systemÃ¢â¬â a system that takes in resources from its external environment and converts or transforms them into goods and services that are then sent back to that environment, where they are bought by customers (see Figure 1. 4). At the input stage, an organization acquires resources such as raw materials, money, and skilled workers to produce goods and services. Once the organization has gathered the necessary resources, conversion begins. At the conversion stage, the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce, using appropriate tools, techniques, and machinery, transforms the inputs into outputs of finished goods and services such as cars, hamburgers, or flights to Hawaii. At the output stage, the organization releases finished goods and services to its external environment, where customers purchase and use them to satisfy their needs. The money the organization obtains from the sales of its outputs allows the organization to acquire more resources so that the cycle can begin again. The system just described is said to be Ã¢â¬Å"openÃ¢â¬ because the organization draws from and interacts with the external environment in order to survive; in other words, the organization is open to its environment. A closed system, in contrast, is a self-contained system that is not affected by changes that occur in its external environment. Organizations that operate as closed ystems, that ignore the external environment and that fail to acquire inputs, are likely to experience entropy, the tendency of a system to lose its ability to control itself and thus to dissolve and disintegrate. Management theorists can model the activities of most organizations by using the open-systems view. Manufacturing companies like Ford and General Electric, for example, buy inputs such as component parts, skilled and semiskilled labour, and robots and computer-controlled manufacturing equipment; then, at the conversion stage, they use their manufacturing skills to assemble inputs into outputs of cars and computers. As we discuss in later chapters, competition between organizations for resources is one of several major challenges to managing the organizational environment. Researchers using the open-systems view are also interested in how the various parts of a system work together to promote efficiency and effectiveness. Systems theorists like to argue that Ã¢â¬Å"the parts are more than the sum of the wholeÃ¢â¬ ; they mean that an organization performs at a higher level when its departments work together rather than separately. Synergy, the performance gains that result when individuals and departments coordinate their actions, is possible only in an organized system. The recent interest in using teams comprising people from different departments reflects systems theoristsÃ¢â¬â¢ interest in designing organizational systems to create synergy and thus increase efficiency and effectiveness.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Viual Aid and Gantt Chart - Essay Example For large organization, the focu i uually on improving the maintenance activitie uch that minimum amount of fund are expended (Anily et al., 1999; Alfare, 1999; Burke and mith, 1999a, b). The high cot of breakdown maintenance could be unbearable uch that the need for preventive maintenance become obviou. The afety of equipment and employee i improved by preventive maintenance ervice. Thi ha ignificant impact on the production proce. Reaching maximum plant availability through minimal delay and breakdown and optimal equipment working condition reduce or eliminate the need for ubcontracting ome apect of the job (Chen and Liao, 2005; Cheung et al., 2005). Thi ha a reducing effect on the uually large maintenance budget of many organization. Maintenance cheduling i uually baed on preventive maintenance activitie (Oke, 2004). In an organization where a large number of equipment are operated, preventive maintenance cheduling offer a mean of achieving continuou indutrial operation without which ytem utenance would be extremely difficult. ince the cot of implementing preventive maintenance cheduling i more economical than that of replacing broken down equipment, in the long t erm, it i more economical to implement thi maintenance option. ound maintenance cheduling i indipenable for high maintenance performance, which in turn facilitate the production proce to yield maximum output. Thi i attained when preventive maintenance upport continuou improvement programme. Effective maintenance cheduling require pecific time and labour allocation, knowledge of equipment hitory, pare availability, knowledge of work and facility priority rating, job pecification, etc. Maintenance cheduling promote effective utilization of both maintenance and production team, notably through minimizing idle time, breakdown and delay (Zhou et al., 2004; Gharbi and Kenne, 2005; Kim et al., 2005). For many year, extenive cientific documentation ha been made on cheduling both maintenance and operational activitie for profit (Yamayee et al., 1998). Recently, the focu of reearcher ha hifted from near optimal olution to the development of optimal olution approache. Thu, the recent work of Charle-Owaba (2002) i important in thi repect. The problem olved i the imultaneou cheduling of reource-contrained operation and maintenance (ee alo Oke and Charle-Owaba, 2005, 2006a, b). The current tudy i an extenion of the novel work of Charle-Owaba (2002). The remaining part of the paper i organized a follow: the next ection dicue the model formulation. Under thi ection, the notation ued in the model are dicued. In addition, the model aumption relevant to ea veel maintenance and operational activitie are explained. In thi ection, the algorithm governing the original model developed by Charle-Owaba (2002) i preented with detailed tep explained for it practical application. till in thi ection, the model framework i preented with mathematical equation upporting the original tructure preented by Charle-Owaba with ome extenion of the idea. Thee tep are preented in a logical manner peruaive enough for the reader to follow. In particular, the three-dimenional wave equation methodology i adopted. ection three dicue the cae tudy of a hipping company. Thi ection conider apect, which include the cae decription, ome variable affecting cot of hip maintenance and their mathematical repreentation,
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Retirement Awareness - Essay Example Early health problems often result in an early exodus from the professional arena. Larry: I decided to retire early in 2003. I had formed a consulting service named Benyshek and Hough Consulting Services Inc. The services provided by our firm are management of dataset and develop into readily-accessible form to be used by cattle production forms, commercial producers, breeders, feedlots, and packing plants. We provide the expertise in EPDs, ultrasound and all areas of animal breeding and genetics. The consultation service needed full time work in the firm and I considered early retirement from the office. Larry: I did not receive any training especially on retirement but I have gathered some information from my old colleagues who talked about it generally. The topic is of common interest to all employees and therefore I got lots of information and awareness on it. I understood the importance of retirement planning and saving money for retirement. I was aware of pension scheme of the university and started saving for the future. Larry: Yes. I am very much comfortable. I enjoyed my life while working as University Professor where I had the opportunity to write numerous Articles and made countless presentations on my subject and received international recognition. I am still working on my own and have no financial problems. Larry: Yes, although I have retired as a university professor but I am still working as private consultant. I am fully enjoying my time with my colleagues and family. Retirement relieves you from the hectic routines of professional life. At the same time it gave me an opportunity to spend some time with my family and kids for which I have longed all my life. This is certainly a relaxing experience with no liabilities and work pressure. All I do is have a nice time and look after my private business which is going pretty well for me. Larry: I am regular visitor of Church and participate in social activities of
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
The Rule of Law - Essay Example There some theorists and researchers who have written about the rule of law lately. In this essay we deal mainly with two of such writers: Brian Z. Tamanaha and Rachel Kleinfeld Belton. We have chosen their papers as our source material because their points of view seem to be rigorous and comprehensive in the different facets of the rule of law that they talked about. Tamanaha does his best to be epistemic when dealing with the rule of law as a general principle that it is often misunderstood while Belton does her best to find a proper definition of what we mean by rule of law as she is completely aware of the generalised state of confusion about this term. Both writers shed light on this topic, and their insights are very useful in order to get an adequate understanding of the rule of law as a fundamental principle that should be taken into account with a sense of commitment and responsibility not only by government officials, politicians, lawmakers or law people, but by everyone in any society at any time. Nobody is exempt from the rule of law, so everybody has to worry about it. "The rule of law is fundamental to the western democratic order. ... in the case of Proclamations (1610) 77 ER 1352: 'The King himself ought not to be subject to man, but subject to God and the law, because the law makes him King'. (Cooray, 1995). This last assertion is quite bold and brings with it the idea of sovereignty. It can be misinterpreted like the concept of the free will of man. When we analyse carefully the Bible, as it is the Westerne standard as its sacred book, we will clearly see that there is not free will, but free agency. This means that man is not free to act as he pleases, but man is free to act according to the design of his own limited nature. So man is still responsible and accountable for his own deeds before God and man. The same happens with any sovereign who is supposed to act under the duty and the call of the law. Why Plainly because the law is the mechanism that makes him sovereign, that makes him king. Dr. Cooray keeps on analysing the rule of law with the following statements: "The rule of law in its modern sense owes a great deal to the late Professor AV Dicey. Professor Dicey's writings about the rule of law are of enduring significance. The essential characteristic of the rule of law are: i. The supremacy of law, which means that all persons (individuals and government) are subject to law. ii. A concept of justice which emphasises interpersonal adjudication, law based on standards and the importance of procedures. iii. Restrictions on the exercise of discretionary power. iv. The doctrine of judicial precedent. v. The common law methodology. vi. Legislation should be prospective and not retrospective. vii. An independent judiciary. viii. The exercise by Parliament of the legislative power and restrictions on exercise of legislative power by the executive. ix. An underlying moral
Monday, August 26, 2019
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of conventional 35mm single lens reflex cameras to other film formats and type of image - Essay Example To shed some light on this topic, the pros and cons of a 35 mm SLR over other film formats and image capturing systems have been detailed in this article. What is an SLR An SLR or Single Lens Reflex camera is one that has a Ã¢â¬Ëreflex mirrorÃ¢â¬â¢ which allows the user to directly view the image being shot through the lens of the camera (Rowse2007). In simpler words, unlike other cameras which have a viewing system different from the lens of the camera, the SLR has only one viewing system and allows the user to see exactly what is being photographed through the viewfinder. SLR or Point and Shoot While deciding which camera one needs to buy, one needs to balance utility with price to choose a camera perfectly suited to their needs. Both SLRs and point and shoots have their own strengths and weaknesses with respect to each other. For example, SLRs have much faster shutter speeds than point and shoot cameras. This can duly be adjusted for the film being used and the abundance of li ght, giving the photographer multiple options for using high speed films (greater ISO) without risking grainy output in the photographs. Also, there is an almost negligible time lag between when the shutter is pressed and the film is exposed, giving the photographer a better opportunity of capturing the perfect moment even with a moving subject. Such is not the case with point and shoot cameras. Both digital and film P&S cameras have a time lag between when the shutter button is clicked and the sensor or film is exposed. This renders them more or less useless for anything but still photography and memories with orchestrated poses. An SLR allows the user to control almost every aspect of photography. He can adjust the light entering through the aperture, the speed of the film, the duration for which the shutter exposes the film, the focus of the image and even the kind of lens being used. Even the best of the point and shoot cameras canÃ¢â¬â¢t hold a candle to these features. The f act that the SLR allows for interchangeable lenses means that the photographer is ready for almost any kind of shot whether a close up, extreme close up, long or a wide shot. The lack of this feature sorely limits prospects with point and shoots. The quality of optics (lenses) in even the worst SLRs tops that in the best point and shoot cameras. The compatibility of these lenses with other camera bodies means that the investment in the lenses is not wasted if the camera body malfunctions. To upgrade, the photographer only needs to change the camera body, which itself is extremely durable compared to a point and shoot. However, an SLR also has certain limitations. One extremely limiting factor is the price of an SLR camera which is many times that of a point and shoot camera. Another prohibiting factor is the size and weight of SLR cameras. The weight of an SLR camera along with its lens kit, filters, flash apparatus and tripod can make it pretty inconvenient to carry around and also , an SLR requires considerable setup time for the perfect shot to be taken. A point and shoot can be fit into the userÃ¢â¬â¢s pocket, whipped out when needed and is ready to capture images. Another issue with SLRs is maintenance. Considering that the SLR is
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Erikson's theory on child development - Essay Example mas in the egoÃ¢â¬â¢s relations with the family and larger social institutions at significant points in childhood, adolescence, and early, middle and late adulthood (Sadock et al, 2007). The different aspects of child development identified by Erikson (1963) are: biological, social and individual. EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s most important contribution to psychology is his demarcation of the eight psychosocial stages represented by the eight ages constituting the life span of an individual. An individualÃ¢â¬â¢s identity is related to each stage of the lifecycle. During adolescence a conflict between identity and role confusion can arise. Ego development occurs through the stages of the life span, and is part of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s evolution into adolescence. As a student of Freud, Erikson took a unique perspective on FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s work, incorporated FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s primary assumptions, and broadened the network of factors considered responsible for influencing development. He extended Freudian psychoanalytic theory to focus on the ego as the fundamental component in an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s functioning. EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s (1963) psychosocial theory of personality development is similar to FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s psychosexual theory of development with its emphasis on instinctual energy as a determining life force (Sadock et al, 2007). FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoint was that the most important determinants of development occurred during early childhood, but on the other hand Erikson believed that the most important development came later, and that development continued through the lifespan: from childhood till the last stage of life. Other differences between Freud and EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s theories is that: Erikson does not stress on unconscious motives or desires, and he based his ideas on analyses of the functioning of healthy people, whereas Freud studied individuals being treated for mental health problems. Erikson considered key social interactions at each stage of development to be very important. Though he agreed that biological unfolding was
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Myocardial Infarction - Research Paper Example The area deprived of blood supply is said to have suffered ischemic injury. The ischemic injury, if severe enough to cause the complete block of oxygen and nutrients causes death of the heart tissue, which is termed as Myocardial Infarction (Guyton et al 200, Ganong 2005). Pathophysiology The blood vessels supplying the heart are called coronary arteries. There are three main coronary arteries which supply different areas of heart along with their branches. These are 1) Right coronary artery, 2) Left anterior descending artery, 3) Left circumflex artery. Above 90% cases of myocardial infarction occur as a result of coronary artery blockage, thus the disease is also referred to as coronary artery disease (CAD). The most common and dangerous cause of coronary artery obstruction, and thus MI is Atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis refers to the narrowing of arteries because of accumulation of atherosclerotic plaques. These plaques are basically thrombi composed of lipid foam cells (choleste rol) and different cell components including smooth muscle, macrophages and collagen fibres. In most instances, the ischemic myocardial infarction is precipitated by the phenomenon called acute plaque change. Acute plaque change results from the rupture of pre-existing thrombi that partially occlude the lumen. The rupture exposes the underlying thrombogenic endothelium. The plaques are also termed as vulnerable plaques as they contain lipids in high amounts, along with collagen fibres and inflammatory cells. When ruptured, the reactivity of these components causes the inflammatory destabilization and result in the infarction (Libby P 2001). The acute phase reactant, C reactive protein (CRP) is thus found to be high during the acute myocardial infarction (Blake et al 2003). The infarction can occur in either of the two patterns, complete occlusion of a single coronary artery referred to as transmural infarct, which results in complete ischemia of the area supplied by that particular coronary artery. Subendocardial infarcts on the other hand occlude the arteries incompletely, and thus allow some perfusion. But since subendocardium is the least perused area of the myocardium, it is more prone to ischemic death. The aim of reperfusion is to save the viable muscle from necrosis (Huber et al 1996). The myocardial injury is reversible for up to 30 minutes after the ischemic attack, thereafter the injury becomes irreversible. The entire muscle becomes necrotic within six hours, if the collateral arteries are not well developed (Robbins et al 2005, Mohan 2007). Etiology of Myocardial Infarction The development of atherosclerotic plaques and pathogenesis of the process into the myocardial infarction is a complex one. It is a chronic disease taking years to evolve before it causes any modifiable consequences. The evolvement is subtle and the resultant damage is severe. The pathogenesis of the disease involves several factors. The balance among these factors in the long r un determines the outcome of the condition. These factors can either be modifiable or non-modifiable. The modifiable factors are the ones that a person can control by bringing about certain changes. They include controlling the level of fats in diet, cessation of smoking, regular exercise and maintaining the blood pressure in the normal range (Manson et al 1996). The hyperlipidemias, i.e. elevated low density
Friday, August 23, 2019
Task 2 - Assignment Example At least 4 % of residents in Australia are suffering from diabetes i.e. 990,000 people. However, the rate has risen by a rate of 1.5 from 1990 hence, the need to make it a national priority. Pregnancies that are associated with diabetes are 44,000 women between 2005 to 2007 thus associated complications. Risk factors include overweight and obesity while people suffering have increased chances of cardiovascular diseases. Many funds are spent in treatment. 1,507 million dollars were spent in treatment between 2008 and 2009 (Cunningham et al, 8). Mental health is a large cause of disability accounting for 24 % of total years lost due to disability in Australia and is becoming increasingly apparent. An estimation of 3.2 million people in Australia has a mental disorder aged between 16 to 85 years. The mental health services report provides recent information on characteristics and activity of mental health care services. The mental and palliative care is responsible for analysing and r eporting mental health care service information contained in reports. However, mental illness has been associated with dementia, cardiovascular disease and alcohol abuse (Tempier et al, 2009). Australian government health priorities for a nursing profession have the aim of improving the health care outcomes of all members in the country and ensuring sustainability of the health system by the implementation of the National Health Reform Agreement. A registered nurse ought to show competence at the work place with appropriate skills and knowledge. He should have the abilities of working interdependently and show responsibility and accountability for their practice. A nurse ought to respect all and should be well trained. In the study, mental health and diabetes are the identified government health priorities. However, these will have some implication on the nursing priority influence on healthcare delivery. Diabetes implications call for the development of sensitization
Human Health and The Environment - Essay Example prove that in warmer temperatures, humans will live longer and avoid certain sicknesses .He further discusses the possible risks and benefits of warm temperature to the Americans, and analyses various factors that are in favor of his argument. The foremost positive effect of warm weather is that it results in the production of less ice and problems related to cold conditions. During winter, people have to work hard to remove ice from the roads, streets and subways. During cold weather, the American families face the problem of investment on winter suits, caps, and other items. They like moderately warmer climate because it reduces the amount of investment on winter items, room heating etc. Another benefit of the moderate warm weather is that it does not affect the economic activities like trade and commerce. The transportation sector prospers in this climate; but.on the other hand, cold weather affects it adversely. Ã¢â¬Å"Most economic activities would be unaffected by climate change. Manufacturing, banking, insurance, retailing, wholesaling, medicine, education, mining, financial, and most other services are unrelated to weather.Ã¢â¬ (Moore, 1998). Moreover, the laborers who are working in warmer climates are willing to accept low wages because they enjoy the benefits of the moderate warm weather. Both harmful and harmless insects flourish in relatively low temperature. On the contrary, moderate warm temperature keeps them away because they are not adapted to live in such conditions. One of the ideal situations that the insects can flourish is the depleted ecosystem. Only strict laws can control the encroachments upon the ecosystem and environment. Ã¢â¬Å"Despite the enormous growth in environmental law and regulation since the 1970s, much of the scientific information needed to ensure environmental protection is still missing.Ã¢â¬ (Wagner, 2004). The aspect of environmental protection must gain global attention and the implementation of laws must be monitored by an
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Global human power Essay Most of the victims in the novel were Frankensteins family, William, Henry, Justine and Elizabeth. These people all suffered due to the creatures anger from Frankensteins original neglect, which is what begun the hatred in the creature. It is not fair to view the creature as a human, as he was artificially created he has no human morals and has never been taught the difference between right and wrong, in the same sense that a court would never convict a baby. Although the creature did manage to master human language skills, it only pushed him further away from society as it allowed him to express his alien nature. We can see this in the novel when the creature put his hand into a fire, because the colours and heat of the fire attracted him I thrust my hand into the live embers but quickly drew it out again with a cry of pain. The creature was a victim in the way that he was uneducated of the world before he stepped into it. Elizabeth can easily be portrayed as a hero in the novel as she represented a saintly soul and a living spirit of love. This lets her down however, when she attempts to save Justine in a religiously Christian based way, which was not successful. Although viewed as a hero she doesnt contain any power over other characters, just a good heart. There is controversy over whether Frankenstein could be viewed as a hero or not, as a cowardly attribute is certainly not a trait of a true hero. When the monster asked him to create a companion for him, he said no as this would enables the creatures to breed and possibly take over global human power. On the other hand he could have spared his family a lot of trouble if he had just created another being who could have possibly shown the love and understanding the creature needed. Frankenstein later realises this when he says For the first time, I felt what the duties of a creator towards his creature were, and that I ought to render him happy before I complained of his wickedness. Elizabeth, Frankensteins wife, was also a hero as she managed to bring up everyones spirits at sad times, and she continually believed in Justines innocence. This particular genre creates a need for both heroes and villains, as it is usually the case of good trying to overpower evil, or vice-versa. To conclude, I believe that there are heroes and villains, as well as victims in this novel. Most of the characters seem to change from villains, heroes and victims throughout the novel, especially the creature and Frankenstein. In my belief the creature was made to be the victim from the opening of the novel as he was neglected, uneducated and ostracised. I believe Frankenstein could have changed everything if he had befriended the creature in the first place. On the other hand Frankenstein was also an isolated individual, although his isolation from society was brought on himself. The novel shows the shallowness of people in society by showing what the monster had to endure because of his appearance, as well as the moral irresponsibility of Frankenstein as a scientist. Frankenstein was always the villain deep down as he attempted to play God, which I dont think should be attempted by any human being. He was obsessed with the fact that he could create life, but never once to considered if it was the right thing to do. I think Shelley is basing the whole novel on, not what Frankenstein actually did, but what he fails to do.Ã The way the creature is portrayed in 3rd person narrative allows us to see the creature as a hero, villain and a victim. I believe that the creature viewed Frankenstein as a father figure and was mentally tortured when his own creator neglected him. He had nothing to live for, except revenge.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Social and Health Inequalities in New Zealand Assess and discuss the impact the following environmental and attitudinal determinants have on health in terms of planning, implementation, and the evaluation of health interventions: A. Demographic distribution of populations Before discussing the effect of Demographic distribution on population, let us first discuss what is population distribution. Population distributionmeans the pattern of where people live. World population distribution is uneven. Places which aresparsely populated contain few people. Places which aredenselypopulated contain many people. Sparsely populated places tend to be difficult places to live. These are usually places with hostile environments. Basically this determinant focuses on the importance of the number of people in a certain location. For example, if the location is dominated by the older age group, the government focuses their funding to the needs of the senior citizens. They focus more on that particular age group because they compose a great portion of the population. But the government should not disregard the other age group that has different needs also. (Population, 2014) B. Social The society that is present in New Zealand is very diverse. Same as the culture that is in this country. The Pacific people and the Maoris has a tendency to have a lower income job compare to the Pakehas. Therefore the Pakehas can afford better healthcare compared to the Maoris and the Pacific people. There are a lot of factors in the society that determines the health of the people. These factors may include strong family ties, pleasant environment, housing, and ways of living. These factors affect the health of the people in different manners. It may be negative or positive. If something goes wrong with these factors, social problems arise. For example, the poor housing may lead to poor hygiene and then it will eventually lead to sickness. In addition, hazardous environment at work or at home may endanger the health of the people. Looking at an individual perception, firm and good family ties and support enhances the health status of an individual. Strong social networks within a distinct geographical neighbourhood help to create healthier conditions in several ways, including: social control of illegal activity and of substance abuse socialisation of the young as participating members of the community providing first employment improving access to formal and informal health care (Wallace 1993). C. Cultural Here in New Zealand, the culture is very diverse since there are a lot of races that are present in this country. We have the Maoris, the Pakehas, the Indians, Asians and other races. Therefore the healthcare delivery system should also address to the needs of these people with different cultural background. Language is also one factor that we can look into. Many people from different parts of the world come here in New Zealand and letÃ¢â¬â¢s face it, not all of the foreigners are well versed in the English language. This creates a barrier in healthcare delivery. When explaining a treatment procedure to a patient who is not well versed in English, it is a challenge to make sure that you are explaining properly and giving the correct information to the patient. So, it is important to know and understand the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s background to be able to deliver appropriate care to them. It is very difficult for the Ministry Health of New Zealand to adopt to the different cultures present here but knowing the different cultures will help them understand and identify what measures to be implemented for the different cultures here in New Zealand. It may be a difficult task to do trying to understand each and every culture present here, but it will be beneficial and the Ministry of Health will be able to plan more strategic interventions for the people that compose New Zealand. Cultural diversity increases the challenge to the effectiveness of the healthcare delivery system in New Zealand (Durie, 2001) D. Political Politicians use healthcare to be one of their focus or goals if they are running for the election. Politicians promise to give the people a better healthcare delivery, healthcare benefits, facilities and other needs. This promises may be politically but if we look at it in a broader sense, it will benefit the people and their health if the promises that he politicians give will be carried out. E. Religious Beliefs New Zealand has become increasingly culturally diverse, there is also an increase in religious diversity. People that has a strong religious orientation and who are primarily motivated by religious belief are believed to have a greater health outcome. People have different religious coping style. This religious coping style is like the way people engage their religiosity to help them cope with their everyday life. Generally, religious belief and practices give a positive outcome to mental health. There is a strong link between religious belief and low incidents of depression. It also reduce the number of suicidal risks, anxiety attacks and sometimes psychotic disorders. Religious belief is important in helping people to recover from traumatic events. In addition, religious belief is believed to reduce practices that result to major health problems. These practices are alcohol abuse, drug abuse and cigarette smoking. Overall, religious belief should not be disregarded when it comes to health because it plays a major role in the life and health of the people. Healthcare personnel should respect the religious belief of the patients. F. Values Some people look at their health as a precious aspect in their life. They value it and take care of it very well. In a multicultural country like New Zealand, people here have different perspective of heath. As for the Pacific people and the Maoris they have a lesser value of health compared to the Pakehas. In order to know how to address the needs of the people, the health department should first identify their needs. Like if the Pacific people and the Maoris do not value their health, they should be given continuous health education to make them realize that they need to value their health. They should be also followed up so that there is continuity of care. G. Ethics Ethics are rules and principles that guide right and wrong. Ethic can be related to health if it is about making proper decisions regarding health. There are a lot of ethical dilemma in healthcare and treatments. It is acting well and making decision that is morally good. Let us take abortion for example. If a pregnant woman come in to the hospital and asks for the Doctor to abort the baby that she is carrying, the Doctor should decide if it is ethically correct to abort the baby or not. The healthcare team should know their morals. H. Traditions Traditions play a major role in healthcare. People are used to involving their traditions to their life and to their health. For the Maoris they value their family or whanau so much. Their tradition is that they want their family members or whanau to get involved in their care. Their family members has a say in making decisions regarding the health of the patient. Therefore, whatever decision the family or whanau has, it should be respected and taken into account by the healthcare team. Environmental Determinants The Public concepts of what health is Before discussing concepts of Health, let me first define what Health is. Health is the state of physical, mental and social well-being of one individual. Health is important because if one is in a Good Health condition, he/she can properly function (eg. For work, sports, etc) and it helps people do activities of daily living. Public concepts of health is important because if the public believes that they are healthy, then they can achieve almost anything and it makes them more productive in the community. The Public concepts of what illness is So what is illness? Illness is a disease or some sort of sickness that will or may affect an individual. It is usually a disease that affects the body of a living organism. There are different kinds of illnesses. For example, there are what you call Physical and Mental illnesses. Physical illness is any illness that affects the body which can be viral, bacterial, rash etc. Mental illness on the other hand, is a disorder characterized by dysregulation of mood, thought and/or behavior. The publicÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of what illness is important because if they perceive that they are ill or are sick, then they cannot function and work well. This affects their performance outside, whether at work, at play or even at home. They also cannot be easily accepted by society if they are believed to be carrying some sort of disease to prevent spreading. The importance the public put on health With regards to health, it is important that the public have an enhanced idea on how and which are healthy and unhealthy for them. Proper information dissemination and education should be done by different private and public sectors to inform the public. The public or the people on the other hand, should have an open-minded attitude towards learning. Compliance with these certain regimens can and will help the public have a healthy and happy lifestyle. Public attitudes towards health and medical professionals The public should be working together hand in hand with medical professionals into making and having a good and healthy life. Whether they be Caregivers, Nurses, GPÃ¢â¬â¢s, PhysioÃ¢â¬â¢s, or anyone working in the medical field, it is critical that they consider what they suggest. As suggested earlier, compliance is a big factor. All this knowledge that would be provided by all these professionals would go to waste If people are not willing to do or try. They must also have a positive attitude towards learning for them to further expand their knowledge, and at the same time be able to share Health teachings. REFERENCES Durie, M. (2001, November 22). CULTURAL COMPETENCE AND MEDICAL PRACTICE IN NEW ZEALAND. Retrieved February 25, 2014, from http://www.massey.ac.nz/: http://www.massey.ac.nz/massey/fms/Te Mata O Te Tau/Publications Mason/M Durie Cultural competence and medical practice in New Zealand.pdf Population. (2014). Retrieved from Internet Geography: http://www.geography.learnontheinternet.co.uk/topics/popn1.html Wallace R. 1993. Social disintegration and the spread of AIDS II: Meltdown of sociogeographic structure in urban minority neighbourhoods. Soc Sci Med 37: 887-96. Social and Health Inequalities in New Zealand Social and Health Inequalities in New Zealand INTRODUCTION Health care services in New Zealand are being delivered by various health organizations and people for the main goal to achieve optimum level of health among all. This assessment will give more insights about inequalities and disparities in healthcare system and services given to the consumers especially in the Maori context. As a healthcare provider, it is a must to study, understand, and adopt the healthcare system in New Zealand to render good quality nursing services to the consumers. Guided by the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi and Cultural Safety, health care providers have an in-depth realization of oneself and the people in New Zealand. This discussion highlights some inequalities and disparities in healthcare towards Maori and non-Maori population. This also provide some input on how the government is responding to this issues. This only limits to the Maori, non-Maori healthcare concerns within New Zealand. Some of the topics are related to political, social, housing, employment, and education inconsistencies of Maori and non-Maori individuals receiving healthcare in New Zealand. POLITICAL DISPARITIES AND INEQUALITIES According to Malcolm (2004), Maori receives only less than 50% of the governmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ expenditure or the primary healthcare services compared to the Europeans. This is believed to be partly economic issue but also of a cultural interests. But Primary Health Organization has been established to address this problem and this is the Access Funding. This provision is specially regulated for the benefits of the marginalized Maori population. But this policy is limited to the GPÃ¢â¬â¢s and Practical Nurse accessibility only, there are no provision for an improved funding of healthcare for Maori people. In this status, we can infer that because of lack of financial support, more Maori prefer not to seek healthcare consultation to specialist physician for proper treatment of health due to the limitation of the provision. Thus, more and more Maori are unhealthy and with high rates of disability and morbidity. Healthcare disparities between Maori and non-Maori marked as a colonial history of New Zealand. This racial problem has mixtures of components to be considered and until now it is still a debate. Loschmann Pearce (2006) said that, health inequalities will not be solve if there are no improvement in healthcare access. As evidenced, continues increased of variation of primary and secondary health care access between Maori and non-Maori. One survey showed that 38% of Maori adults reported problems in obtaining necessary care in their local area, as compared with 16% of non-Maoris. Maoris were almost twice as likely as non-Maoris (34% vs 18%) to have gone without health care in the past year because of the cost of such care. (Loschmann Pearce 2006) As primary health care services are the main place for health consultation and treatment in New Zealand, more Maori are going to seek healthcare to GPs clinic and medical centers. Access is not merely the entry to health care facility but it is also the provision of quality health services rendered. Since, most Maori go to primary health care clinics and centers, specific health concerns for Maori is not addressed because treatment for critical or complex case patient cannot be treated in a primary health care facility, specialize treatment is needed. Thus, unmet proper treatment. (The Health of New Zealand Adults 2011). SOCIAL DISPARITIES AND INEQUALITIES Social inequality issues are linked to ethnicity. Social disparity occur continuously in New Zealand. The impact of colonization to the Maori population marked to the very moment. There are issues in cultural identity as to which is more powerful and have the rights in the land and government. Discrimination and power imbalance still exist at present moment and its relation to healthcare is very significant. Social connectedness is the key determinant in gathering data related to social disparities among the two mentioned parties. According to Pollock, (2012) a healthy community has lower morality rate and higher expectancy rates. The data of life expectancy shows 83 years for non-Maori female and 79 years among non-Maori male, whereas, 75 years Maori women and 70 years in Maori men. Another determinant is the income of a particular person. Considering he/she can afford a high standard of living if he/she has a good and highly paid job. But in Maori context, they are marginalized, as shown in the data that median weekly earnings for Maori is $767 Ã ± 15.43 compared to $863 Ã ± 17.26 for non-Maori. This statistics views inequality among Maori and this has a big effect to their household income, thus their standard of living is low compared to the non-Maori people, based from Marriott Sim (2014). Unhealthy practices also associates with low income which eventually leads to unhealthy behavior. Smoking is high in many depressed areas and mostly Maori are living in this areas. There are studies linked that smoking plays important role in socio-economic and ethnic status of Maori and it is interrelated to lung cancer occurrence. Maoris in living in poor conditions were three times likely to use tobacco than those with high standard of living person. There is a rise in lung cancer usage and deaths in the deprived areas and 30% of Maori died because of lung cancer compared to the 17% of non-Maori death rates, Pollock, (2012). There are also studies that conflicting views regarding Healthcare Model in the work place. Maori still practiced their own context of health and healing and this understandings the viewpoints of conventional health services rendered. There are also medical practices that contradicting to their own cultural approach towards health. Marginalization is seen on staff insensitivity, judgmental, and disrespectful delivery of care, according to Elers (2014). The healthier a person is, the lower the mortality rates. Engaging in a healthy lifestyle activities will make a person fit. More Maori experienced sicknesses at a younger age and it happen often and die young. While non-Maori have higher life expectancy rate even if they lived unhealthy. Mortality and morbidity percentage is significantly higher among Maori population. Male with good work shows low death rate than male working as laborers and cleaners. There are also data shows that, the more deprived communities are, the higher percentage of death and illnesses. (Pollock, 2012) EMPLOYMENT DISPARITIES AND INEQUALITIES Employment status is one determinant in healthcare inequalities in New Zealand. According to Pearson (2012), among other ethnicity in New Zealand, Maori and Pacific population has the highest unemployment rate. It comprises of 17.8% compared to non-Maori which is 14.2% in the year 2006. Most of the jobs Maori landed are occupation in the land and fishing. Some of the Maoris are working as laborers with a rate of 30% compared to 15% of European laborers. While, 18.2% of Western people are managers and 10.6% for Maori society. Labour forces are mainly the occupation of Maori. This is in relation to their low educational attainment as Pearson (2012) said. Healthy status can be achieved in many ways, one good factor that leads to a good personal shape would be their status in life. The ability and capability to support basic needs and necessity like food and shelter. Insufficiency in lifeÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ basic needs will eventually make a person unhealthy and easily get sick. As Blakely Simmers (2011) stated that, one of the leading disease of Maori is diabetes and it is mostly encountered in marginalized and low income individual and the predisposing factor would be obesity in the Maori race. How employment status affects the health of every individual is very important to discuss. Employment status is regarded as a main basis of health in a person. It has a direct and indirect effect on health and believed to have an increasing impacts over time. Another pointer to review is the funding of the government towards healthcare. Most Maoris seek health intervention in the primary health centers and GPs while the Europeans can afford to pay for specialist physician, thus, better health are achieved by the Western group. Another thing to consider is the discrimination views of Maori towards healthcare. Maori Health Review (2007), shows data that there are 76.3% Maori women wanted to receive transplant while 79.3% to non-Maori women and 80.7% for Maori men and 85.5% fo r non-Maori men respectively. This data indicates healthcare compliance to treatment and this a strong input for improvement of health. Thus, shows, Maoris have higher mortality rate. In addition to that, a person who are unemployed and have family will not able to sustain daily basic needs and health is our basic need. Thus, Maoris have more health vulnerabilities than compared to non-Maoris. HOUSING Family is the basic unit of society. It is the very foundation of social being in the community and it is also the most critical part in obtaining data regarding health and wellness of every individual more focus on children who are dependent of care from their parents or family members for physical and emotional development (Ministry of Health, 2009). In the middle of the 20th century, there is a significant increase in home ownership by the Maoris compared to the decreased percentage of non-Maori home ownership. This data is basically focus on the household proportion and not on the number of households, (Waldegrave, King, Walker, Fitzgerald, 2006). There are 47.0% of Maoris and Pacific people owned their homes as compared to 72.8% for Europeans. These varies with the quality of housing they had, Maoris lived commonly in two or more family sharing in bedrooms whereas, Europeans have enough space in the house and rarely shared bedrooms, as Pearson (2012) said. This pattern of living manifested a not well-designed standard of housing for Maoris, thus health risk is advantageous. Congestion and substandard housing may lead to poor health condition for Maori and most common are: colds, asthma, and post-natal depression. Pearson (2012) added that, there is a significant increase in obesity, smoking and alcohol drinking. There were 38.0% Maori alcoholic beverages drinkers whereas, 23.0% were reported for Europeans. Research shows that one of the leading cause of death for Maoris and non-Maoris are Ischaemic Heart Disease and the second leading cause is lung cancer for both Maori male and female, according to the Ministry of Health (2014). This is an evidence regarding the high number of Maoris who smoked as previously mentioned. The increased rates of respiratory diseases were due to the overcrowding of family members and contamination of molds in the home because of poor housing condition. These highly contagious diseases can be pass through droplet, personal cont act and airborne transmission. Thus, Maoris are susceptible to many easily spreadable diseases and many lifestyle related health problems, (Ministry of Health, 2014). EDUCATION Education is said to be the key factor to success. This is in connection with many advantages and helpful product like high paid jobs, better income, great occupational chances and have relations to positive health outcome, (Marriott Sim, 2014). Good education enables a person to be economically stable and high productivity in life which resulted in an improved standard of living. This also makes a person self-worthy, secured and a sense of belongingness. But there are some indicators to be considered to assess standard of living of every individual. This relates to the physical situations in which people lived, the availability of goods and services, and the accessibility of resources. These are the two pointers to considered, first is the income they get and second is the accommodation they have according to (Ministry of Social Development, 2010P). Maoris educational qualification has dropped enormously compared to non-Maori settlers. Pearson (2012), stated that there are 2 out 5 Maori have no school qualification compared to 1 out 8 Asians and a quarter of Europeans respectively. There are more Maoris who had no degree in education which is an evidence of many Maoris worked as laborers and cleaners. Data shows that many Maori school leavers who attended only the minimum level of education, NCEA level 2, 60.9 % of them completed level 2 compared to 82.1% for non-Maori in the year 2012, Marriott Sim, (2014) said. There are 18.6% Europeans who had bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree, while there are only 9.1% of the Maori population finished bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree. There is also a great difference in the aged-standardised tertiary participation rates in 2012 data, it shows 9.9% of Maoris compared to 8.0% in Europeans. Across years of observations, changes in educational attainment enhances improvement in Maoris life as to their way of living. The implication of these findings are relatively connected to the education background of individual to achieve optimum of heal th. All aspects are interrelated to each other. As little knowledge about health would lead to unhealthy way of living thus Maori are more unhealthy people compared to other ethnic groups. There is also a premise that education starts at home and this shows relevant to healthy lifestyle. Smoking at home is prevalence among Maoris, and according to their living conditions, overcrowding is a health treat especially to the young generation. Second-hand smoker comprised a high rates among Maori children. There are 2.6 times exposure to SHS among Maoris compared to non-Maori children and a significant high rates of 7.8 times of Maori children living in remote areas. Studies shows that almost 24% of the smokers were diagnosed with many mental health conditions like depression, bipolar, anxiety disorder, and alcohol and drug related disorder, according to the Ministry of Health, (2014). Conclusion Based from the given facts and data, I can confer that health disparities and inequalities among Maori and non-Maori are ambiguous to discuss. However, history plays a vast implication to healthcare services in New Zealand, it should be of greater good of the citizens not merely the matters behind the past. As a result of my review, majority of Maoris were unhealthy compared to the Europeans. This is based from the sources of information I gathered form many research and studies. Thus, health organizations and health providers must collaborate to promote, protect, and sustain health of New Zealanders. BIBLIOGRAPHY Maori Health Review. 2007. Patient preference and racial differences in access to renal transplantation. http://www.maorihealthreview.co.nz/pdf/NZMaoriHealthRR_005_02.pdf Ministry of Health. 2002. Reducing Inequalities in Health. https://www.health.govt.nz/system/files/documents/publications/reducineqal.pdf Lorna Dyall, Valery Feigin, Paul Brown, Mavis Roberts. 2008. Stroke: A picture of Health Disparities in New Zealand. https://www.msd.govt.nz/about-msd-and-our-work/publications-resources/journals-and-magazines/social-policy-journal/spj33/33-stroke-a-picture-of-health-disparities-in-new-zealand-p178-191.html Phoebe Elers. 2014. Maori Health: Issues Relating to Health Care Services. http://www.tekaharoa.com/index.php/tekaharoa/article/viewFile/170/128 Kerryn Pollock. Public health Social and ethnic inequalities, Te Ara the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 13-Jul-12 URL: http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/public-health/page-6 Iann Culpitt. 1994. Bicultural Fragments: A Pakeha Perspective. https://www.msd.govt.nz/about-msd-and-our-work/publications-resources/journals-and-magazines/social-policy-journal/spj02/02-bicultural-fragments.html Laurence Malcolm. 2004. Are we proving fair access to our health services for Maori? www.pha.org.nz/documents/fairaccessforMaoritohealthservices.doc Lis Ellison-Loschmann and Neil Pearce. Improving Access to Health Care Among New ZealandÃ¢â¬â¢s Maori Population. American Journal of Public Health: April 2006, Vol. 96, No. 4, pp. 612-617. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2005.070680 The Health of New Zealand Adults 2011/12: Key findings of the New Zealand Health Survey. Section 7: Barriers to Accessing Health Care. http://www.health.govt.nz/system/files/documents/publications/health-of-new-zealand-adults-2011-12-section7.pdf Ministry of Health. 2014.Tobacco Use 2012/13: New Zealand Health Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health. David Pearson. Ethnic inequalities Occupation and education, Te Ara the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 13-Jul-12 URL: http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/ethnic-inequalities/page-6 Lisa Marriott and Dalice Sim. 2014. Indicators of Inequality for Maori and Pacific People. http://www.victoria.ac.nz/sacl/centres-and-institutes/cpf/publications/pdfs/2015/WP09_2014_Indicators-of-Inequality.pdf Ministry of Health. 2014. Major causes of death (all ages) http://www.health.govt.nz/nz-health-statistics/health-statistics-and-data-sets/maori-health-data-and-stats/tatau-kahukura-maori-health-chart-book/nga-mana-hauora-tutohu-health-status-indicators/major-causes-death-all-ages David Pearson. Ethnic inequalities Occupation and education, Te Ara the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 13-Jul-12 URL: http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/ethnic-inequalities/page-6 David Pearson. Ethnic inequalities Housing, health and justice, Te Ara the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 13-Jul-12 URL: http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/ethnic-inequalities/page-7 Ministry of Business, innovation Employment. 2009. Maori in the New Zealand Labour Market. http://www.dol.govt.nz/publications/lmr/maori/in-the-labour-market-2009/executive-summary.asp Prepared by Tony Blakely (UOW) and Don Simmers (NZMA), with input from many colleagues. June 2011. FACT AND ACTION SHEETS ON HEALTH INEQUITIES. http://www.pha.org.nz/documents/fact-action-health-inequalities.pdf Citation: Ministry of Health. 2009. A Focus on the Health of MÃâÃ ori and Pacific Children: Key findings of the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health. Ministry of Health. Maori PH workforce development: the Aotearoa context. http://www.publichealthworkforce.org.nz/maori-health-development_66.aspx Charles Waldegrave, Peter King, Tangihaere Wlaker, Eljon Fitzgerald. 2006. Maori Housing Experiences: Emerging Trends and Issues. http://www.chranz.co.nz/pdfs/maori-housing-experiences.pdf