Friday, March 29, 2019

Citric Acid to Remove Stains | Experiment

citric Acid to Remove Stains Experiment accentuate AND PURPOSE Knowledge most immanent whitenednedneres to remove shite whitethorn be reclaimable in our daily life. Natural bleaches thr genius be launch in respective(a) emblems of harvest- metres succus and many early(a)(prenominal) an(prenominal) to a greater extent. This green bleaches be more than fri suppressly to environment and cheaper than commercial harvest- time. Citric panelling is onlyness of bleaching agent that screw be found in the citrus yield proceedss such as so-and-so. This paper provide discuss on the process of removing markers by citric pointulent in divergent reference of return juices. The investigation was foc utilise on How does the flake of citrus issues use change the pose of re attain of soft touch extractible? Since befouls make antithetical slips, the effectiveness of citric acrimonious on two symbolfaces of obscenitys (synthetic and vegetable estab lish stain) had been discussed more in this investigation.MATERIALS AND METHODS The investigate was conducted with polar type of fruits lemon, linden, belly button o runness and pineapple. The time interpreted for the different type of stain to be removed by different type of fruits had been recorded and be analyzed to reveal the approximately trump apply as inherent bleaches.RESULTS Even though the lemon juice is more generally turn inn as natural bleach unless(prenominal) establish on the try, the best used citrus fruit as bleaching agent is calcium hydrate and the citric blistering is most effective used to remove vegetable establish stain.Table of Contents (Jump to)Introduction1.0 Bleaches1.1 interpersonal chemistry in Bleach1.2 chemical mechanism of Bleaching1.3 precept of development1.4 moment of Study1.5 Limitation of Study1.6 Research forefrontHypothesis changeables3.0 Apparatus and Materials4.0 single- nursed function and Analysis4.1 Extraction of jui ces from citrus fruits4.2 Citric acid determination4.3 affair for stain removableConclusion EvaluationINTRODUCTIONBleachesBleaches used intercontinental in household to remove or decolor stains which whiten or lighten the color of frame cookes. Chemically, bleaches pass on breaks the stain blood cells into smaller molecule that good be removed. D. no.mia Souza (2008) stated that bleaches atomic takings 18 chemical that capable to whitening the fabrics and removing stains by destroying tinting matter. T here ar two types of reaction that involve in bleaching. Comm and bleaching process involves in oxidation processes such as total heat peroxide and some involve the reduction processes such as atomic number 11 chlorite. until now in bleaching processes, the oxidation and reduction as well ignore add up simultaneously. Bleaching process for stains most effective when some(prenominal) an oxidative and a subtr diligent bleaching steps worked together and this referr ed as full bleaching (J.M. Cardam ane W.N. Marker, 1995) There are various types of bleaches, and each type of bleach is specifically used for certain type of fabrics. The fabrics are very specific and if used with wrong bleach, the fabric pass on wear out. tautness, pH, time and temperature are the various designers which are affect the action of bleach on fabrics.Chemistry of Bleach total heat peroxide is the most prominent bleach and usually used in commercial bleaches. However, fit in to D.Noemia Souza (2008), the strongest bleach is atomic number 11 hypochlorite slice the weakest is atomic number 11 chlo run and the hydrogen peroxide is milder. atomic number 11 hypochlorite(Chlorine- demanding oxidants)Usually, the atomic number 11 hypochlorite allow for contain 15-18% of chlorine (D.Noemia Souza, 2008). Under certain full term, the asc lastent go away decompose into atomic number 11 chlorite (eq1) which then reacts with hypochlorite and produce the atomic number 11 chlorate (eq2). The atomic number 11 hypochlorite will beneathgoes further reaction to thaw oxygen (eq3). Thus it is categorise as chlorine bleach2NaOCl NaCl + NaClO2 (1)NaOCl +NaClO2 NaCl+NaClO3. (2)Overall equation3 NaOCl 2NaCl+NaClO3 (3)2NaOCl 2NaCl+O2 (4)Hydrogen peroxide(preoxygen bleach)Hydrogen peroxide bleaching will dissociates into H+ and per hydroxyl ions HOO-(eq1).The per hydroxyl ions is the active bleaching agent. Under alkaline conditions it will release oxygen (eq2).Cotton would damage low this conditions as the bleaching effect is slow and the bleaching rate is fast. The activator and stabilizers are added to control this condition (J.M. Cardamone W.N. Marker, 1995). water supply2 HO2- + H+.. (1)2 water supply2 2 piss +O2 (2)Hydrogen peroxide is a universal bleaching and D.Noemia Souza (2008) said it is the only oxidizing bleach that can be safely used on protein.Mechanism of Bleachingestablish on ProcterGamble (2005) the process of bleaching is shared ou t into two, which areBreaking up the stainThe stain consist of molecule chains covering the fabricsThe bleach molecule will break the stains into smaller pieces by and by that process, bleach molecule will disappearThe stain is now broken into smaller pieces which can be easily removed by the surfactantDecolorizing the stainsThe stains color has its fount in the double-bond connectionsThen, the bleach will break up the bond and exchange it into single bond, eliminating its ability to absorb visible light.After that, the bleach molecules will disappear.Once the double-bond connections are broken up, the stains isnt visible anymore.Citric Acid as Natural BleachCitric acid is weak organic acid and one of the acids found in citrus fruits such as lime and lemon. It popularly used in food industrial as perservative. It overly can act as natural bleaching agent and an antioxidant. So it is useful in our daily life to remove stain or tinkers dam from fabric and bleach the spot. Citric a cid exist in many type of vegetables and fruits still more concentrated in lime and juice where the ironic weight of citric acid in fruit comprimise as much as 8 percent ( denseness of cotric acid in fruits range from 0.005 mol/L for oranges to 0.30 mol/L in lemons and limes (Wiki.Org)Rationale of the StudyNowadays, most of people prefer to use biodegradable product or green product. Especially in current downturn economy, many people change to less expensive products. Using citrus fruits as an alternative ways to remove stain is the good choice. The misgiving that arises here is what the significance of knowing which of the citrus fruits is best used in removing stains?Significance of the Study atomic number 11 hypochlorite (chlorine bleach) and hydrogen peroxide (oxygen bleach) are extremely popular in the market to whiten the fabrics and in stain removable. However, there are some dis goods exploitation oxygen and chlorine bleaches. Most of them are pre carious if ingested or inhaled and should be used with care. Lindsay Evans (2009) also explained the chlorine can character negative health effects. Besides, they are costly and give a knotty impact to our environment especially rivers and lakes ecosystem. Chlorine that flowing into rivers or lakes will combine with other chemical to form a stable coalesce where it will remain unchanged in groundwater for many years (Wisconsin, 2010). On the other hand, citric acid best uses as natural bleaches because it does less harm to ecology of rivers and lake.Limitation of the fieldAll of the try out will conduct in the Mara College Serembans laboratory. Most of the fabric such as citrus fruits lemon, lime, navel oranges and pineapple and table table salt are obtained from crossway Cheras in Cheras, Selangor, Malaysia. So, all of the fruits are not in the same take aim of freshness due to different condition during storage that may affect the freshness of the fruits. Besides that, th e fruits might not pass from same guide and this will affect the assimilation of acid in the fruits.Research QuestionThe focus of study is to investigate the ability of citrus fruits as natural bleach to remove stain from fabric. The main objective of this study is to identify which of the citrus fruits lime, lemon, pineapple, and navel oranges is best used as bleaching agent.So the look question of the study is How does the different type of citrus fruit used lime, lemon, pineapple, and navel oranges affect the rate of reaction of stain removable?The study uses 4 different types of citrus fruits which are lime, lemon, pineapple, and navel oranges that will excerpt into juice and add with table salt (sodium chloride).HypothesisThe research question of the study is How does the type of citrus fruits used affect the rate of reaction of stain removable? The rate of reaction of stain removable is the highest at the most acidic root. So the venture is the most acidic fruit in this case is lime or lemon as both contains high denseness of citric acid.VariablesIndependent VariableThere are two independent variables in this experiment as the experiment is change integrity into several(prenominal) parts. The first independent variable is the different types of citrus fruit juices lemon, navel orange, lime and pineapple. While the second independent variable is the different type of stains where synthetic stain (syrup) and vegetable stain(tomatoes) are used end-to-end the experiment.Dependent VariableRate of reaction to remove the stain from fabric will be the dependent variable. The time interpreted will be record by stopwatch for the stain to decolorize. Then by development the graph the gradient is determine which represent the rate of reaction.Fixed VariableThe fixed variables are type of cloth (cotton), lot of juice (5oml), temperature ( snowc) and wad ( blowml) of water bath and quantity of sodium hydroxide (3 teaspoon). All of this square will be use in same quantity passim of the experiment.Apparatus and MaterialsMaterialQuantityFruit juices (lemon, lime, navel oranges, and pineapples)50 cm3 blow c of water bath100 cm3PhenolphthaleinDistilled water40 mlTable salt1.0M of NaOH resolventDried KHP3 teaspoon10 cm31.0 g4.0 Procedure and AnalysisPreparation of an approximately 0.1 M Sodium Hydroxide Solution followed by the Standardization of the Sodium Hydroxide forward testing the concentration of citric acid, the standard sodium hydroxide solvent take to be shitd. In rig to prepare 0.1 M of NaOH, 9.0 cm3 of 1.0M sodium hydroxide resolving power was diluted with 100.00cm3 of distilled water. Then the sodium hydroxide root word was standardizing to determine its concentration by titrated it with KHP. This acid base reaction is shown in Equation 1(M.L.Gillette, 1999)KHP(aq) + NaOH (aq) NaKP(aq) + H2O(l)(eq1)Two portion of 0.5g of dried potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) was weighed and turn with 50ml distilled water in coni cal flask. The Phenolphthalein ancestor was added for 2-3 drops into KHP etymon to betoken the end point of titration. Phenolphthalein was used because the pH range of product is 8-10 .The sodium hydroxide was titrated with KHP solution until pale pink color was produced. The volume of NaOH solution added was recorded.selective information ingathering for Standardization of NaOHNumber of trials1sttrial2ndtrialInitial Burette reading/cm3 (0.05cm3)0.000.00 nett Burette reading/cm3 (0.05cm3)23.5025.40Volume NaOH solution added/cm3 (0.05cm3)23.5025.40ObservationAfter hardly a(prenominal) excellents, the clear solution turned into pale pink forwards disappeared.After few minutes, the clear solution turned into pale pink out front disappeared.Table 4.0Data AnalysisThe purpose to standardize sodium hydroxide solution against potassium hydrogen phthalate is to determine the exact comfort of sodium hydroxide concentration. By titrate the 0.1M of sodium hydroxide solution against KH P solution the results collected are more accurate. The concentration of sodium hydroxide was found to be 0.1002MCalculation for determining the concentration of the sodium hydroxideKHP (aq) + NaOH (aq) NaKP(aq) + H2OTo calculate the number of mole of KHPNumber of mole= mass/ poor boy mass= 0.5g KHP/ 204.2= 2.449-10-3mol KHPTo calculate the number of mole of NaOH required to neutralized KHP solutionNo. of moles of NaOH = No. of moles of KHP= 2.449-10-3mol NaOHTo calculate grand of NaOH solutionConcentration of NaOH = (number of moles/ volume of NaOH)-1000= (2.449-10-3/ 24.45) -1000 = 0.1002MPercentage uncertainty of the concentration of the 0.1M of sodium hydroxide% doubt of Concentration of 0.1M NaOH = Volume(H2O) + Volume(NaOH)+ Concentration of NaOH(1.0M)% Uncertainty of VH2o = 0.04/100.00 - 100= 0.040%% Uncertainty of VNaOH = 0.05/9 - 100= 0.600%% Uncertainty of CNaOH = 0.040+ 0.600=0.64%Extraction of juices from citrus fruits.The lemon was cut into small pieces and blend with blender. The juice released was putted into the beaker and labeled with A. First step was repeated again until half of the beaker filled. Then, the extracted juice was filtered through muslin cloth. The whole procedure were used again with another type of fruits, lime, navel orange and pineapple and labeled withBeaker image of juiceALemonB lime hydrateCNavel orangeDPineappleCitric Acid DeterminationThe reason of citric acid determination is because to know the exact value of citric acid in juices for info analysis. This process is carried out by adding NaOH into the fruit juices. The approximately 10 mL of lime juice was prepared by victimisation pipette and transferred into a conical flask. Then, the lime juice was diluted with 20ml of distilled water and three drops of phenolphthalein was added into solution. The solution with 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was added from burette to the juice sample while swirling the mixture until the reaction mixture turned into snuff it pin k color. The end point was reached when the pink color persists for thirty seconds. The volume of NaOH added was recorded. The processes were repeated again to emergence the accuracy. Then, the procedure was repeated with different type of juice lemon, orange and pineapple. By apply the formula, the molarity of citric acid in the fruit juice was calculate.Data Collection for citric acid Determination oddball of juiceLemonNumber of trials1sttrial2ndtrial3rdtrialVolume of juice pipette/(0.5)ml101010Final burette27.649.676.1Initial burette027.649.6Volume of NaOH (0.1)mL27.622.026.5Average Volume of NaOH23.98Qualitative DataThe colour of solution in conical flask change from white colour to kick the bucket pink colour.Data Analysis- computing for determining the citric acid concentration through sodium hydroxide added.The citric fruits consist of citric acid. Citric acid contains carboxyl acid group and reacts with hydroxide ion as indicate in equation 2 (Dr. Ewa doubting Thomas, 2 007). The sodium hydroxide will ionise to form sodium ions and hydroxide ions (eq 1).NaOH (s) Na+ (aq) + OH (aq) (eq 1)C3H5O (COOH)3 (aq) + 3 OH- (aq) C3H5O(COO)33- (aq) + 3 H2O (l) (eq 2)The purpose of this experiment is to determine the concentration of citric acid on the citrus fruit by titrating the citrus juice with standard sodium hydroxide solution. The concentration of citric acid can be metric by measuring the volume of sodium hydroxide used (eq 3).Molarity,M= (eq 3)M1V1 = M2V2 (eq 4)establish on the equation, the molarity of the OH- ions equal with sodium hydroxide as the molecular ratio is 11. So, the molarity of hydroxide ions can be known. By using equation 4, the concentration of citric acid can be determined. calculate the concentration of citric acidBy using the information given above, I had reason the concentration of citric acid in citrus juices. The citric acid C6H8O7 is a triple basic acid that consists of three carboxylic acids and react with one hydroxid e ion ,eq 1(Ewa Peter Thomas M Moffet, 2007). In this experiment, I fictional that the citric acid is fix acid found in the citrus fruits.C3H5O(COOH)3 (aq) + 3 OH- (aq) C3H5O(COO)3 (aq) + 3 H2O (l).(eq 1)However, according to experiment conducted by Law.C Solak.E(2009) the citric acid does not ever so have the 3 carboxylic acid. So, in this experiment I will assume that the citric acids only have 1 carboxylic acids but its less accurate. The following reaction takes place in the titrationC6H8O7 + OH- H2O + C6H7O7- (eq 2)Based on the equation(eq 2), the molarity of the OH- ions equal with C6H8O7 as the molecular ratio is 11. By using equation below, the concentration of citric acid can be determined.M1V1 = M2V2where m1 = molarity of Sodium hydroxide, NaOHv1 = volume of Sodium hydroxide Solution, NaOHm2 = molarity of dilute citric acids, C6H8O7v2 = volume of dilute citric acids Solution, C6H8O7Example of calculation By Using the volume of NaOH use to titrate lemon juice0.1M NaOH - 23.98 ml = M2 - 10 ml 0f C6H8O72.298 mmol OH- = M2 - 10 ml C6H8O7M2 = = 0.2398 mole/L C6H8O7(The calculations showed above are applied to all other experiment, table 5.5)Calculating UncertaintiesPercentage uncertainty of Concentration = (n / n) + (Volume / Volume) x 100%ExamplePercentage uncertainty of concentration for Lemon== 6% arbitrary uncertainty of concentration = Percentage uncertainty x Concentration / 100%Example for Lemon = 6% -0.24/100%= 0.014 moldm-3 0.01 moldm-Data PresentationType of juiceAverage NaOH used(0.1)mLConcentration of citric acid (mol/L)Lemon23.980.2398Lime10.780.1078Navel Oranges5.350.0535Pineapples2.950.0295Table 4.6Procedure for process of stain removableThe white cloth cotton was cut into3cm-3cm coat of it for 20 pieces and each pieces of cloth were stain with syrup solution. Then the stained clothes were dried for about 1 hour. 20 cm3 of lime juice was prepared and the initial pH of juice was recorded by using pH meter. For the first trial, a stai ned cloth was held under the running water and was soaked in the lime solution for more than 30 minutes. After that, the stained cloth was put into100c hottish water bath and the time taken for the stained decolorize was recorded. However, the stained excessivelyk longer time to decolorize where the average of time taken cannot be recorded. So I used another method by adding 3 teaspoon of table salt (sodium chloride) into lime juice. The pH value of juice was recorded. The stained cloth was rubbed with salt before soaked into the solution for an hour. Then, the stained cloth was putted into 100C hot water bath and the time taken for the stained decolorized was recorded. In order to identify the best fruit best use to remove the stain, the whole step was repeated again with another type of fruits lemon, navel orange, and pineapple. The results from different type of fruits were compared.Besides that, I also used the different type of stain to test which one is more effective been bleached by citric acid. In this experiment I used vegetable found stain which is tomato stain. The first method is used without adding the table salt (sodium chloride) and the result was recorded and be compared with synthetic stain (syrup).Data Collection for Removable of stainQualitative dataFor synthetic stainThe pinks colour of stain turns into colourless.Fabrics receive whiteFabric cloths smell fruity.The juices become more slippery when added with sodium chloride.For organic stainThe red colour of tomatoes decolorizeThe fabric colour turn into redishThe fabric turns white after held under running water.Data AnalysisAccording to the data collected, the different type of fruits and different type of stain will affect the time taken for the stain to decolorize. For the syrup stain, there essential be influenced by sodium chloride ( cooking salt) as it is hard to remove by citric acid alone. Adding the cooking salt involved the osmosis concept where the solution will become mo re saturated, the water will moving from the cloth to the salt and taking the stain together (T. Lister J. Renshaw, 2000). When the cooking salt is added into the juice, the pH of juices drop and become more acidic. However, chemically the cooking salt does not affect the acidity of citric acid. The drop in pH value may be due the presence of water in the juices which react with the salt and release the hydrogen ions which might cause this to be happened. The reason putting stained cloth into the hot water is to increase the reaction by increase the movement of particle and reduce the time taken to remove the stain (Kenneth M.S, 1942). The highest rate of reaction (Table 4.9) calculated is lime juice and the lowest rate of reaction is pineapple juice. The reaction for both juices can be associate with its pH and concentration. In term of concentration of citric acid, the higher the concentration of citric acid will increase the acidity of juice and the time taken for stain removab le will become faster. However, this might not be true for lemon juices. Even though, it has highest citric acid concentration but the time taken for stain removable is not the fastest. This believably because of fallacy and limitation occurred and will be discussed more in other section.Meanwhile, graph 4.4 shows the rate of reaction of stain removable for both type of stain by using Microsoft Excel. It is show that the rate of reaction for removable stain in tomatoes stain is 0.154, higher than syrup stain. This is might be because the syrup stain is more thick and viscous. While the vegetable based stained (tomatoes) is easier to remove because it is organic in nature and more oil-soluble in lemon juice.8.0 Conclusion and EvaluationConclusionThe experiments showed that the type of citrus fruits used does affect the average time taken to remove the stain. The hypothesis that rate of reaction would be highest in the most acidic fruit (lime) which consist high concentration of ci tric acid, is also back up based on the data collected. The pH of lime is 2.2 most acidic among the others citrus fruits. The main objective of this essay is to identify which of the type of citrus fruits lime, lemon, pineapple, and navel oranges are best used as bleaching agent. As mention above, the type of citrus fruit does affect the rate of reaction to remove the stain. However, it also depends on the type of stain. Test on fabric with synthetic stain without adding sodium chloride (salt) required a long time where the average time taken cannot be collected. Meanwhile, citrus fruits are best used on fabric with vegetable based stain as there in no influence with sodium chloride. It can be said that the sodium chloride act as catalyst and making the removable of stain easier. In addition, the time taken to remove the stain for vegetable based stain is fastest compare than synthetic stain. The hot temperature was used in the experiment to speed up the reaction. Thus it can be co ncluded that, the lime is the best used as bleaching agent but with certain condition type of stain and temperature.EvaluationSome error and limitation occurring during the experiment which causes the result collected imprecise. The limitation and errors in these experiments can be divided into several parts. For the first part is problem in procedure A. Initially, the sodium hydroxide prepared had been assumed exactly 1.00M. However, to test the accuracy of the concentration, the sodium hydroxide had been standardized using KHP solution. After calculating the concentration of the sodium hydroxide, the concentration of sodium hydroxide is approximately 0.1M with 0.2% of percentage error.There is a limitation occur when calculating the concentration of citric acid by titrate it with sodium hydroxide solution. One problem is the citrus fruits contain several type of acid. So, in the experiment the citric acid had been assumed as sole acid in citrus fruits and be supported by Dr. Ewa T homas. As a result, the amounts of citric acid concentrations calculated are inaccurate and larger than theoretical value. The citric acid should been standardized to know the exact concentration, where it reduce the uncertainties. Besides that, some common mistake occurred in the experiment such as improper position of burette and parallax error in taking the measurement. To cross this, there is no other solution except reduce the parallax error by positioning the eyes bang-up to the scale reading needed and position the apparatus used at the smooth surface. muchover, it was hard to determine that the colour of the solution turned to faint pink colour because if the titration of NaOH was titrated without care the solution will become too red. So the result of the first faint pink colour come out should be detect and detected properly so it needs a particular partner in doing that job.Based on data collected, there is error between the concentration of citric acid and pH value f or lemon juices where supposedly the pH of lemon juice should be most acidic as it has highest citric acid concentration. The problem may arise in determining the citric acid concentration where the value of citric acid calculated in lemon juice was incorrect. Because of the lemon used are in different freshness (as mention earliest in limitation of study), it might affect the result. So, the same lemon must be use throughout the experiment.In the last part (procedure D), one of the error occurs is during taking the average time taken to remove the stain from fabric. When the stained fabric is place into hot water, it is difficult to identify whether the cloth decolorize or not because it is possible for fabric to turn into white without be rub. To improve this, the experiment must be repeated for several times to increase the accuracy. There is also a limitation where the removable of stain cannot be seen clearly when test conducted with coffee at first. So, to overcome this probl em, the stain was changed into syrup which the red colour can be seen clearly. However the problem had comes when there is change in pH value of fruit juice after adding with NaCl due to presence f water. This might be because limitation that occurred during extraction of juice. So, it is necessary to ensure all the equipment to rinse and dry first before conducting any experiment.Recommendation for further researchMore work could be through on the use of sodium chloride (cooking salt) in removing stain is it effective used and how it will increase the effectiveness of citric acid in removing stain? The other use of citric acid beside remove stain should be investigated as if citric has potential in other cleaning process. Besides that, while the experiment was done by using citrus fruits as natural bleaching agent other natural bleaching agent should be considered. Investigation on the effectiveness of citric acid by comparing it with the commercial bleaches and color safer bleache s has applications in our daily life.CdS Quantum dots tax deduction and Optical PropertiesCdS Quantum dots Synthesis and Optical PropertiesCdS Quantum dots Synthesis and Optical Properties word-painting for solar CellRaimy RoyAbstract In this work CdS quantum dots were synthesized using Successive noggin Layer surface assimilation and Reaction (SILAR) method. Then a study of the geomorphology and opthalmic property were made for the application of solar cell. The structural painting were made by XRD while the optical characterization where done by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy techniques.Index TermsQuantum dots, SILARI. INTRODUCTIONQuantum dot sensitized solar cell is an emerging field of photovoltaic in which the absorbing material is a quantum dot. The advantage of using such solar cell is size tunability and increased surface to volume ratio.In a quantum dot based solar cell the active work consist of the quantum dot and the dispersion layer is formed by the TiO2 layer. The me soscopic TiO2 when set uped with CdS quantum dot act as an talent harvester and convert the incident photon to electricity. In this work, a model of the photoanode for the solar cell was made with mesoscopic TiO2 layer as scattering layer and quantum dots as absorbing layer. Here instead of ITO a starter in slide was used. 1To synthesize a quantum dot various techniques are used. Among them Successive Ionic Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method is a cost effective and is used to prepare quantum dot. In a SILAR method the time of reaction or the number of cycle per seconds can be controlled. Depending on which the size of the quantum dot varies. Another advantage of this technique is that it can be prepared at room temperature. in any case this method provides a close contact between the quantum dots and the oxide layer, so it is an engaging method for the preparation of electrodes in a solar cell. 1Cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dot is a direct muckle gap semiconductor. It is a II-VI immix semiconductor that is used for many optoelectronic devices such as solar cell, optical maser diodes and photoconductors. It is an inorganic semiconductor which has several advantages over conventional dyes. These advantages are stria gap tunability, large extinction coefficient (this means that the dark current can be reduced and the overall efficiency can be improved) and duplex electron generation by utilizing hot electrons. 2II. EXPERIMENTAL SETUPChemicals mandatoryTitanium dioxide mill (SD Fine-Chem Limited, purity 60%), 2M nitric acid, 0.05M cadmium nitrate, ethanol, 0.05M sodium sulfide hydrate (Sigma Aldrich, assay=60%), methanol.Preparation of TiO2 layer on ice-skating rink slideA gap of titania (TiO2) was prepared from TiO2 powder and nitric acid. The chemicals were added in 21 proportion. A thin layer of titania paste was coated on the glass slide using a technique called doctor blade method 3. In this method, any a glass rod or a microscope slide is used. We have used a microscope slide of thickness 1.45mm to coat the paste. A glass slide of dimension 2cm X 1cm was cut and cleaned. With the help of an adhesive tape, the glass slide is positioned firmly on the work bench. Another advantage of using such tape is that we could define an area to coat the paste and to deposit the quantum dot. Now place the paste on one side of the glass slide, positioning the microscope slide in 45 spread the paste across the glass slide. Repeat the operation till a reasonably equivalent layer is formed. After coating heat the paste to 80C followed by annealing at 450C for 30 min. After sintering the paste is white in color. This provides a better surface for adsorption of the CdS quantum dots since sintering makes the mesoporous films to a continuous network.Deposition of CdS Quantum DotsSuccessive Ionic-Adsorption and Reaction method is commonly used to deposit metal sulphide onto a nanostructured film. CdS quantum dot was deposited onto tita nia using this method as described in 4. The first precursor solution used is 0.05M cadmium nitrate (Cd(NO3)2) and the second precursor solution is 0.05M sodium sulphide (Na2S). The bare TiO2 paste is dipped onto the first precursor solution for one minute. The Cd2+ ions have been deposited onto the TiO2 surface. This is then rinsed in an ethanolic solution for one minute and dried under room temperature. It is then dipped in the anionic precursor for one minute and then rinsed in methanolic solution for one minute and allowed to dry at room temperature. This completes one deposition cycle of SILAR. In this work we have performed four deposition cycles of SILAR.III. RESULT AND backchatThe CdS quantum dot was deposited on to the surface of TiO2. An obvious color change was observed during the deposition cycle which is shown in chassis.1. The color change was pale color to golden yellow. The characterization was done using XRD and UV-vis spectroscopy techniques. build 1 Photograph of glass slides with CdS coating with increasing SILAR cyclesXRD motion pictureFig 2. shows the obtained XRD conception for TiO2 (Fig.2a), TiO2/ CdS (Fig 2b.) . From the wind obtained, we confirm that CdS quantum dot was deposited onto the film. Since the peaks at 44.1, 51.9, 64.3, 70.4 and 72.9 coincides with the intensity pattern as defined by the JCPDS 10-0454 for the CdS QD. The corresponding miller indices are (220), (311), (400), (331) and (420). From this we conclude that CdS QD was deposited. It belongs to the box-shaped crystal system and the mineral name is hawleyite. For TiO2 the XRD pattern exactly matches with JCPDS 21-1272. It belongs to tetragonal crystal system and its mineral name is anatase.Fig.2 XRD pattern (a) TiO2 (b) TiO2/CdSSize CharacterizationThe size characterization was done by non-contact mode AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy). The size of the CdS quantum dot was found to be 25.83nm. the thickness of the deposited layer was calculated to be 29.65nm. Fig 3.Fig 3 AFM non-contact mode characterization of CdS quantum dotUV-vis CharacterizationThe optical property was characterized using Jasco Spectrophotometer V670. The submerging spectrum is shown in Fig 4. The dousing spectrum for the TiO2 and CdS/TiO2 is shown in Fig 4a. and TiO2/CdS alone is shown in Fig.4b. The submergence peak for CdS is as reported by Antonio 4. From the preoccupation spectrum we could observe a shift in the peak indicating CdS QD is being deposited. The absorption peak was observed in the range of 386nm-484nm. For TiO2 the absorption peak was observed at 341nm. In Fig 4b. the stick in is the absorption spectrum that was reported in 5Fig 4 Absorption spectrum of (a) TiO2 and TiO2/CdS (b) TiO2/CdSFig 5 UV-Vis absorption spectra showing increase (49 %) in absorption due to CdSFigure 5. depicts the percentage increase in the absorption peak of CdS with respect to TiO2. It was calculated to be a 49.08% increase in the absorption peak.Determination of Op tical Band gapThe DRS (Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy) characterization was done to obtain the optical hardening gap. The optical band gap was calculated by plotting the Tauc plot . It is the plot between energy and absorbance. The optical band gap can be determined by Tauc relationWhere is the absorption coefficient in cm-1, h is the photon energy in eV and A is a constant. The value of n is given as followsn = for direct allowed changen = 2 for indirect allowed transitionThe Tauc plot for TiO2 and TiO2/CdS is shown in Fig 6. TiO2 is an indirect band gap material whereas CdS is a direct band gap semiconductor. The bandgap value of CdS in bulk is given as 2.42eV 5. From the experiment we calculated the optical band gap to be 2.38eV. Also the absorbance value of the CdS QD is blue shifted. Using the equationThe value of the peak was calculated to be 519.16nm which is within the absorption region.Fig 6. Tauc plot of (a) TiO2 (b)TiO2/CdSIV. CONCLUSIONIn this work CdS quantum dot have been synthesized using SILAR method. Its structural characterization was done that confirm the deposition of the CdS quantum dot on to TiO2 paste. The optical property was characterized and analysed using UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. The optical band gap was calculated to be 2.38 eV. The size of the quantum dot deposited was calculated to be in nanometer.REFERENCES1 Prashant V Kamat , Quantum dot Solar cells.The next double Thing in Photovoltaics J.Phys.Chem.Lett. 2013, 4, 908-918.2 Chang Liu,Yitan Li,Lin Wei,Cuncun Wu,Yanxue Chen,Liangmo MeiandJun Jiao, CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells based on nano-branched TiO2arrays Nanoscale Research letter 2014,9.3 A. Berni, M. Mennig, H. Schmidt, Doctor blade method, Springer.4 Antonio Braga,SixtoGimenez, Isabella Concina, Alberto Vomiero and Ivan Mora-Ser, Panchromatic Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Metal Sulfide Quantum Dots Grown Directly on Nanostructured TiO2 Electrodes, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2011, 2, 454460.5 B. T. Huy, Min-Ho S eo, Jae-Min Lim, Dong-Soo Shin and Yong-Ill Lee, A Systematic Study on Preparing CdS Quantum Dots Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 59, No. 5, November 2011, 3293-3299

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