Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Judicial Process Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Judicial Process - Research Paper Example This has lead to juveniles being punished under adult criminal sentencing guidelines, which is more severe than in juvenile courts. considerable research work on juveniles in adult criminal courts have been conducted throughout time with others focusing on their character in courts, punishment outcomes in adult courts and comparing them to the juvenile courts. Juvenile Punishments in Adult Criminal Courts There have been varying conclusions into the degree of severity of the judicial outcomes, although, most concluded that the degree were less severe to those melted out to adult offenders. Juvenile courts and adult courts are very different in functionality and as such, comparison of the courts would not bring meaningful conclusions. The most practical analysis, therefore, is to look into juvenile outcomes in adult courts and compare to similar cases amongst young adults with similar offences. Several research work on this has also produced diverse results, however, most studies conc ur that juvenile status toned down the severity of sentences in adult courts, but not the actual court process. Additionally, other research work indicated that there are juvenile penalties in adult court, which seem harsher compared to similar cases by young adults. These results show several research work conducted by different scholars applying different methodologies and within different judicial jurisdiction. Sentencing Guidelines Earlier sentencing structures were consistently based on rehabilitative notions that focused on personalized punishments that would suit each offence, terms of imprisonment were varied and this allowed for a degree of flexibility in their application. Policymakers and the public however, came to realize huge loopholes in such system, this lead to proliferation of sentencing guidelines in more than half of the states. Sentencing law represents ‘procedurally rational law’ contrasting sharply with ‘substantively rational law’ th e latter provides for punishments to be personalized to fit eccentric offender needs and considerations. These presents a conflict to the society, one of establishing order and the other of punishing individuals based on unique circumstances. However, the latter applicability has always been argued aids in seeking fair just and proportional outcomes for each individual case. The guidelines that have been promulgated have lead to containment of judges’ decision, explaining the reason why judges prefer their judgment on particular cases. The sentencing guidelines also differ on jurisdiction, for instance those in the state of Maryland are different from those in the state of Pennsylvania. In recent years however, most sentencing guidelines have been more flexible in their applicability, providing a wide range of alternatives for each offence. For instance, some states implemented â€Å"presumptive† guidelines and these legally mandated judges to sentence within guideline s ranges except in rare circumstances involving departures (Johnson and Kurlychek 2012). Other states implemented less restrictive â€Å"voluntary guidelines†, which provide judges with benchmarks for sentencing, but they do not legally require the judge to sentence within the guidelines recommendations. Cases involving juveniles in adult courts by definition are atypical, this is because juvenile status represents a unique offender considerations, it may play as

Monday, October 28, 2019

Discuss what Lady Macbeth’s persuasive language in 1.7 reveals to the audience about her character Essay Example for Free

Discuss what Lady Macbeth’s persuasive language in 1.7 reveals to the audience about her character Essay Discuss what Lady Macbeth’s persuasive language in 1.7 reveals to the audience about her character relationship with her husband In Shakespeare’s Macbeth, he portrays Lady Macbeth as a strong female character whom is equal to Macbeth and sometimes even stronger than Macbeth which was unusual for the time as at the time, men were considered to be above women as they believed in the divine order of the universe which stated that men came before woman and that women should only be there to serve men and obey their husband and their father and not question their husband’s decision. In Scene 1.7, Shakespeare uses Lady Macbeth’s language and sexual parts to persuade her husband into killing Duncan so that she can become Queen. She even goes as far as question Macbeth’s manhood. One of the quotes which supports my point is ,†We fail? But screw your courage to the sticking-place, and we’ll not fail.† which Lady Macbeth said to Macbeth after he questioned him and not obeying him. She used a rhetorical question which is seen in the above quote to scould him as would a child which is going against all of the things that a wife should be at that time and she is talking to him like a child when she tells him to get his courage up and reassures him that they will not fail which is all influenced by the rhetorical question. She also questions his manhood in the quote,†When durst do it, then you were a man,† by scolding him and saying that he is not a man now as he didn’t dare to do it and this has made him more feminine which is a great insult to give someone in Shakespearean times, which proves my point that Lady Macbeth does not want to give up and she f ft ff people into doing whatever she wants him to do. I believe that this quote is one of the strongest quotes which proves my opening point. Another quote which I believe proves my opening point is,†What beast was’t then, that made you break this enterprise to me? When you durst do i t, then you were a man.† This states that Lady Macbeth is hurt as Macbeth broke a promise to her. She uses repetition in the quote and she repeats the word ‘you’ which you could infer as making an accusation against Macbeth or you could infer that she is honestly hurt by Macbeth as she expresses hurt by her use of language in this quote. In this quote she also uses a rhetorical question which you could infer that she is so hurt and angry, she does not want him to answer the question and she ends with a very strong insult which a â€Å"loving† wife would never make to her husband, especially in the Shakespearean times. She further evaluates the importance of a promise to her in the quote, â€Å"know how tender tis’ to love the babe that milks me. I would, while it was smiling at my face, have plucked my nipple from his boneless gums and dashed the brains out, had I sworn as you have done this.† This quote proves that Lady Macbeth would do anything if it would uphold her promise even if it would mean killing her own child to uphold a promise. This quote also shows how truly hurt Lady Macbeth is and how angry and how fearful she is and her dertermination to get what she wants. This is quite masculine of her but I will cover more on that after this. A quote which shows how devious and courageous Lady Macbeth is, â€Å"Who dares receive it other , as we shall make our griefs and clamour roar upon his death?† This quote proves that Lady Macbeth is doing whatever she can to get what she wants. She uses persuasive language such as ‘dares’ which is a very strong word as it involves taking a risk and a risk which could ultimately stab you in the back. This quote also shows Lady Macbeth putting on a false face and pretending to grief and mourn for the King’s loss however in actual fact, it was her which set up the King to be killed. This shows that Lady Macbeth will be decisive and manipulate whoever she wants to get what she desires. A quote which I have mentioned before but I want to go more into detail is, â€Å"know how tender tis’ to love the babe that milks me. I would, while it was smiling at my face, have plucked my nipple from his boneless gums and dashed the brains out, had I sworn as you ha ve done this.† I strongly believe that this is the quote which really well establishes Lady Macbeth is a brutal and a character which will do anything to get what she most desires and not to care about anything or anyone else, just to get on top. This quote portrays Lady Macbeth as a mother which is a role which you need to care only about the baby and nurture the baby and bring it up as your own. This quote mentions that Lady Macbeth knows what it is like to breastfeed a baby but the play has not mentioned anything about Lady Macbeth and a baby, but I will get to that in further detail in my conclusion. This quote also mentions her killing the baby in the most brutal way: when it is it’s most vulnerable. During a breastfeeding. This shows that Lady Macbeth will do anything to keep a promise and you could infer that because of her incredibly detailed description, that she has done this before. One more quote which I believe solidifies my first point is, â€Å"And live a coward in thine own esteem, letting â€Å"I dare not† wait upon â€Å"I would† like the poor cat i’th’ adage? † This quote shows that Lady Macbeth is angry and full of adrenaline which really provokes her use of language in this quote by calling her husband a coward for backing out of his commitment and letting him live in the shame of not doing his deed which also interrupts the divine order and being a good wife in the Shakespearean times. She defies all this when she does not listen to her husband and takes on the role of the husband in the relationship in this quote and in this whole scene. In conclusion, I believe that Lady Macbeth is full of anger, grief and betrayal as she confronts Macbeth in this scene by saying that he is not a man and by calling him a coward and informing or reminding him of what she would do if she promised him. She would even go as far as killing her own child if that is what she has promised which means that she has built up a lot of trust in this relationship and she does not want to lose it now. By saying she knows how it feels to love a baby who she has breastfeed could imply that she and Macbeth had a baby and it died or it got murdered. If it got murdered or it got killed because of a promise she made, which she has proven is the most important thing to her, probably fuels her anger and hurt in this scene which makes this scene make so much sense that it is my final implied conclusion. The reason that I have inferred is that Lady Macbeth is so passionate and angry in this scene is because she had a baby and it died because of a promise she made which is why she made such an important and a significant reference to this is because this happened to her and she does not want it to happen again.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Shakespeares Othello: Is Jealousy the Cause? Essay examples -- Othell

The hero in William Shakespeare’s tragedy Othello is guided to murder by his passions. Which passions? Jealousy? Sexual jealousy? In this paper let us look into these questions. In the volume Shakespeare and Tragedy John Bayley denies that jealousy is a major causative factor in the play: The play eludes with ease any attempt to pin it down to a solution: why it happened, what caused it, what weakness in Othello was involved? Even jealousy as such is not the reason. Jealousy is a long-term affair, with its own rules and customs, its own subterranean animosities and grudges. (204) Contrasting with this critical opinion is that of another esteemed critic. Lily B. Campbell in Shakespeare’s Tragic Heroes definitively categorizes Othello as a â€Å"study in jealousy†: Othello has suffered less in its modern interpretation than any other of Shakespeare’s tragedies, it would seem. So insistently did Shakespeare keep this tragedy unified about the theme of jealousy and the central victims of the passion, so obviously did he mould his plot about the black Moor and the cunning Iago and the victims of their jealousy that no interpreter has been able to ignore the obvious intention of the author. Yet if we study the contemporary interpretations of the passion here portrayed, we find that Shakespeare was following in detail a broader and more significant analysis of the passion than has in modern days been understood. The play is, however, clearly a study in jealousy and in jealousy as it affects those of different races. (148) Can we narrow down the concept of jealousy in this play to a specific type? Helen Gardner in â€Å"Othello: A Tragedy of Beauty and Fortune† sees this play as a study in sexual jealousy: Othello is not a study in prid... ...vington, David, ed. William Shakespeare: Four Tragedies. New York: Bantam Books, 1980. Campbell, Lily B. Shakespeare’s Tragic Heroes. New York: Barnes and Noble, Inc., 1970. Ferguson, Francis. â€Å"Two Worldviews Echo Each Other.† Readings on The Tragedies. Ed. Clarice Swisher. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1996. Reprint from Shakespeare: The Pattern in His Carpet. N.p.: n.p., 1970. Gardner, Helen. â€Å"Othello: A Tragedy of Beauty and Fortune.† Readings on The Tragedies. Ed. Clarice Swisher. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1996. Reprint from â€Å"The Noble Moor.† British Academy Lectures, no. 9, 1955. Jorgensen, Paul A. William Shakespeare: The Tragedies. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1985. Shakespeare, William. Othello. In The Electric Shakespeare. Princeton University. 1996. No line nos.      

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Unit 14 P1& P2

p1 & 2 Unit 14- Assignment 1 ‘Physiological disorders, their nature, signs and symptoms’ Unit 14- assignment 2 ‘Diagnosis- how it is carried out’ Contents Coronary heart disease (CHD)2 Signs and symptoms2 Factors that can affect the development of the disorder3 How is CHD diagnosed? 3 Treatments4 Lifestyle changes that could be made4 What medication can be used? 5 What types of surgery are used to treat CHD? 5 Recovering from CHD6 Crohn’s disease7 Signs & symptoms7 Causes7 Complication that can occur8 Diagnosis8 Treatments8 Medication8Surgery9 Bibliography9 Coronary heart disease (CHD) Blockage of the coronary arteries by plaque may cause a heart attack. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a term used to describe what happens when the blood supply to the heart is blocked or interrupted by a build up of fatty substances in the coronary arteries. CHD is a preventable disease that can be treated. Over time the walls of the arteries can become clogged up with fatty deposits. This is a process that is known as atherosclerosis. The fatty deposit is known as atheroma. Signs and symptomsThere are various symptoms of CHD; palpitation of the heart, this is an unusual awareness of the heart beating, this is a common symptom. Palpitation of the heart is normally described as skip in a heartbeat, which is often a pause followed by a strong beat, or a period of rapid and irregular beats. Unusual breathlessness, this is where the person suddenly looses their breath for some unknown reason. Angina is another symptom of CHD. Angina is a pain that comes from the heart. This can be caused by a build up of fatty deposit or a collapsed arterial wall, resulting in the blood having difficulties to flow freely and quickly to the heart.The signs for angina are; chest pains, pins and needles down the left arm, up to the neck, jaw ad into the back. Pail skin, blue lips and nauseas are also some of the signs that can be recognised for angina. Heart attack is o ne of the most common of the number of heart conditions. It occurs when there is a blockage in one of the coronary arteries that supple the heart muscles with oxygenated blood. If part of the does not receive oxygenated blood, the heart muscles will die or not function correctly, which reduces the amount of blood that is pumping around the body.The signs for a heart attack are very similar to angina but occur without warning. Heart failure is another symptom of CHD, heart failure means that your heart is about to stop working. It happens when your heart is having trouble pumping enough blood around the body. It usually strikes if the heart muscles have become too weak to work correctly. CHD is a big killer, with 2. 6 million people living with the condition in the UK. There are 1 in 5 men and 1 in 7 women suffering from coronary heart disease. The chances of getting this disease increase as you get older.The reason for this is because the older you get the more fatty substances can build up in your coronary arteries. The disorder physically affects the body’s systems’ when the blood supply to the heart is blocked or interrupted by a build-up of fatty substances in the coronary arteries. Over time the walls of the arteries can become clogged up with fatty deposits causing the heart to work harder and when exercising the symptoms will be lack of breathe increased heart rate and increased pain in left arm. The first signs are face becomes red the body starts to sweat before becoming cold and pail as the blood flow weakens.Factors that can affect the development of the disorder Coronary heart disease begins through the damage to the inner wall of a coronary artery. The damage can be caused by many things, some include; smoking, a diet high in cholesterol and diabetes. Gender can also affect the development of the disorder. Men are more commonly at a greater risk of developing CHD than women. Age is another big factor, as your age increases so does yo ur risk of damaged and narrowed arteries due to the amount of Cholesterol deposited on the walls of the arteries.As you get older the more chance you have of getting the disease, this is because the older you are the weaker your coronary arteries get. High blood pressure can significantly speed up the process of hardening and thickening of the arteries, narrowing the path through which blood can flow around the body. If there is a family history of heart disease, it is seen to be a higher risk that you will develop the disease. If your close relatives have developed heart disease, you are seen to be at a high risk of you developing CHD at a later stage in life. How is CHD diagnosed?You can diagnose Coronary heart disease by going through many procedures. A person may have to have an Electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram (Echo), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)  scan, coronary angiography, radionuclide tests, x-rays, or blood tests. Heart An ECG records the rhythm and electrical activity in the heart. Lots of electrodes are placed on the arms, legs, and chest. The electrodes that are connected to the patient are also connected to a machine to record each heart beat. Even if an abnormal reading is taken, it doesn’t mean everything is ok.And a normal reading doesn’t mean everything is ok. ECG’s are not reliable on their own, many more tests/ procedures have to talk place to correctly diagnose the patient with CHD. Echocardiograms Echocardiograms are similar to ultrasound scans which are used during pregnancy. It uses sound waves to produce an image of the heart. An echocardiogram can find and work out the structure, thickness and the movement of the valves in the heart. During an Echo the patient is asked to take their top off and lay on a bed. A small piece of equipment, called a transducer, is moved over the chest.A gel that works as a lubricant is put onto your skin to assist the transducer to move along the skin effortlessly, this wil l make sure that contact is kept at all times with the skin. A coronary angiography provides information about the hearts blood pressure and functioning. This procedure can identify whether the coronary arteries are blocked or narrowing. A tube/camera is passed through an artery in the groin or arm; it is guided using x-rays up to the heart. A coronary angiogram is a safe procedure, but there are some small side affect.You may feel a slightly strange sensation when the dye is put down the catheter, a small amount of bleeding when the catheter is removed, a bruise in your groin or arm. X-rays are used to guide tubes or cameras through the body. It is used to look at the heart, lungs, and chest walls. They can also be used to rule out any other conditions that might be causing the weaknesses. Blood tests such as cholesterol, cardiac enzyme and thyroid function testing are three blood tests that are used to diagnose a person with CHD.They are also used to rule out other conditions that may be similar to CHD symptoms. Radionuclide testing indicates how strongly the heart pumps and it shows the flow of blood in the heart. There is a small amount of radioactive substances are injected into the blood and a camera is placed over the chest which picks up radioactive signals. MRI scans produce detailed pictures of the heart; the picture is produced by the patient lying down on a bed like table and taken through a tunnel which scans the patient’s heart. TreatmentsCoronary heart disease is treated in a number of ways. The intensity of the treatment depends on the seriousness of the disease. For many people, CHD is managed with lifestyle changes and medication. Other with severe CHD many need to undergo surgery. When a person develops CHD, it requires lifelong management. Lifestyle changes that could be made Reducing the chances of developing CHD is within the individual’s control. Their doctor can help reduce the chances by the use of drugs. The biggest redu ction comes from the individual choice of changing their lifestyle.The lifestyle changes are the most important way of reducing the chances of developing CHD, or preventing the disease from getting worse. People should eat healthy and lower fat intake if they are going to reduce the risk. Participating in regular exercise can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. It is recommended that you take part in at least 30 minutes of exercise 3-5 times week. Exercise lowers you blood pressure, also lowers bad cholesterol, and increases good cholesterol. Exercising strengthens the heart and increase the circulation of blood around the body.Smoking increases the risk of you developing CHD. As you inhale the tobacco smoke it causes many instant reactions in the heart and blood vessels. You heart rate increases to as much as 30% in the first 10 minutes of smoking. Smoking increases blood pressure, blood vessels constrict (narrow), which makes the heart have to work harder to circulate oxyge n around the body. Stopping smoking helps reduce the risk of developing CHD because after three years of not smoking, the risk of heart disease is the as a non-smoker. What medication can be used?Also taking a low dosage of aspirin a day can reduce the risk of CHD will prevent blood clots but they don’t really help the stomach, as they are bad for the stomach. Angiotensin- converting enzymes (ACE) inhibitors are what you would take to treat high blood pressure. They stop the progression of CHD and they block the hormone that causes the blood vessels to narrow and stop the heart working correctly. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used to lower the blood pressure. Calcium channel blockers, these are also used to lower blood pressure by relaxing the muscles that are in the walls of the arteries.Thiazide diuretics are used to reduce the amount of water in the blood. Beta blockers are used to prevent angina and treat high blood pressure. They slow down the heart, which will decrease the requirement for oxygen. This will improve the blood flow to the heart. Statins are the medication that lowers cholesterol levels. They slow down the process of CHD and they also reduce the likelihood of having a heart attack. Nitrates are also used to widen the blood vessels, they relax them, and this will let more blood pass through them. What types of surgery are used to treat CHD?Surgery may be recommended for patients who continue to have frequent angina attacks, even with the use of medications, or people who are found to have serious blockages in their coronary arteries. The patient has to be referred to the hospital by a doctor. The patient should not refer themselves to the hospital as this could be dangerous as it could cause stress and anxiety. Coronary angioplasty surgery may be a procedure that could be planned for the patient, but this could also be an emergency procedure. A coronary angiogram will determine if the treatment is suitable for the patient.A c oronary angioplasty is a procedure to open up any narrowed arteries so that blood can flow more easily to your heart. During the procedure, the doctor will inflate a small balloon in the artery that is affected. The doctor may insert a stent to keep your artery. A coronary angioplasty is sometimes called balloon angioplasty. You may have a coronary angioplasty to treat angina or after you have had a heart attack. Coronary angioplasty Some people may have an angioplasty straight after an angiogram. An angiogram is a test that allows your doctor to take an X-ray of your coronary arteries and find any narrowed areas.In a coronary artery bypass operation, a blood vessel, usually taken from the leg or chest, is grafted onto the blocked artery, bypassing the blocked area. If more than one artery is blocked, a bypass can be done on each. This procedure will then mean the blood will be able to go around the obstruction to supply the heart with enough blood to relieve the chest pain that may be caused with the blocked artery. Bypass surgery relieves symptoms of CHD but does not cure it. Usually you will need to make a number of changes in your lifestyle after the operation.If your normal lifestyle includes smoking, a high-fat diet, or no exercise, changes are advised. Making the changes will reduce the chances of you getting CHD as bad as you did before you had the surgery. A heart transplant is only preformed when the heart is severely damaged and medication does not work or after heart failure. Heart transplant is surgery to remove the person’s diseased heart and replaced with a healthy heart from a donor. Your doctor may recommend a heart transplant if your heart is so damaged or weak that it can't pump enough blood to meet your body's needs.This condition is called heart failure. A heart transplant is a life saving procedure. Recovering from CHD If you have heart surgery, a member of the cardiac rehabilitation team may visit you in hospital to give you infor mation about your condition and how you can recover from the surgery that you have undertook. This care will usually continue after you have left hospital. For the couple of weeks after your surgery, a member of the cardiac rehabilitation team may visit you at home to check on your progress and see if you are recovering.What happens in cardiac rehabilitation programmes can  vary throughout different areas, most cover exercise, education and relaxation and emotional support. Once the rehabilitation programme has been completed, it is important the patient continues with regular exercise and that they lead a healthy lifestyle. This will help to protect your heart and reduce the risk of further problems with the heart. Crohn’s disease Crohn’s disease is a long term condition that cannot be cured. Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease which causes stomach pains, diarrhoea, and can also lead to weight loss.Crohn’s disease affects the lower part of the s mall intestine, also known as the ileum. It also affects the large intestine, the colon. It can affect any part of the digestive system. The affected areas become red and swollen, sometimes causing ulcers on the affected areas. As the ulcers heal, the scar tissue makes the intestine narrow, due to this it leads to an obstruction in the digestive system. There is no cure for this disease, but the symptoms can be prevented. Signs ; symptoms There are many symptoms for Crohn’s disease, but they can vary depending on where the disease is located in the digestive system.Common symptoms of Crohn’s disease are; abdominal pain, the pain is normally found in the lower right side, diarrhoea, loss of appetite this leads to weight loss, rectal bleeding, fever, nausea and vomiting, Skin lesions and joint pain. Causes There is no exact cause of Crohn’s disease and it is unknown what it is caused by, it is linked to a problem with the body’s immune system response. Norm ally the immune system helps protect the body, but with Crohn's disease the immune system can't tell the difference between the normal body tissue and foreign bodies.The result of this is an overactive immune response that leads to chronic inflammation. People with Crohn's disease never get rid of the inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Crohn's disease may occur in any area of the digestive tract. The inflammation causes the inner wall to become thick. There are different types of Crohn's disease, depending on the part of the digestive system that is affected. Crohn's disease may infect the small intestine, the large intestine, the rectum, or the mouth.A person's genes and environmental factors are seen to play a role in the development of Crohn's disease. The body may react excessively to normal bacteria in the intestines. The disease may occur at any age, but it usually occurs in people between ages 15 – 35. There is a greater chance of you developing this disease i f there is a family history of Crohn's disease, you come from a smoking background or you smoke. Previous infections may trigger Crohn’s disease, as a past infection can trigger an abnormal response from the immune system. Complication that can occurCrohn’s disease can cause many different kinds of complications, such as, blockages or obstructions in the intestines are the most common complication that can occur. Malnutrition can also be a complication; this is when a person’s diet does not contain enough nutrients to meet the demands of their body. There is also an increased risk that Crohn’s disease suffers will develop colorectal cancer (bowel cancer). Diagnosis The patient has to go through many tests to be able to be diagnosed with Crohn’s disease. If one test was carried out, it wouldn’t be reliable because other diseases or problems may arise when taking the test.Blood test can be carried out, this can show if there is any inflammatio n, infection and anaemia. Anaemia is a when a person has an iron deficiency, meaning if they have too much or too little iron in their blood. Stool sample, which can be examined for blood, mucus and parasites, such as round worm. A colonoscopy is when Colonoscopy the doctor inserts a long, flexible tube called a colonoscope, into the anus and slowly guides it through the rectum and into the colon. The colonoscope inflates the large intestine with carbon dioxide gas; this gives the doctor a better view.A small camera that is on the end of the colonoscope sends a video image from inside the large intestine to a computer screen; this allows the doctor to carefully examine the intestines. Treatments Crohn's disease is a condition that cannot be cured, but appropriate treatment can help control the inflammation and manage the symptoms. Diet and nutrition management can help patients control their symptoms and improve their nutritional levels. The patient can take many types of medication to resolve symptoms and prevent disease developing any thither.Some medications don't work for everyone with Crohn's disease. Most patients with severe Crohn's disease eventually need surgery when medications and diet and lifestyle changes no longer help. Medication The purpose of the medication that is prescribed by the doctor is to reduce the inflammation that activates the signs and symptoms that occur. They are also to improve the patient’s long term life, by reducing and limiting the complications that could occur. The drugs that the patient could be given are; Anti-inflammatory drugs: these drugs are often what are given to the patient first.Sulfasalazine (Azulfidine): this drug isn't always effective for treating Crohn's disease. It may help to reduce the inflammation of Crohn's disease that affects the colon. This medication has many side effects, including tiredness, vomiting, heartburn and headache. Mesalamine (Asacol, Rowasa): this medication is normally taken whe n the disease is affecting the large intestine, as it is ineffective for the disease that is effecting the small intestine. This medication has some side effects include tiredness, vomiting, heartburn, diarrhoea and headache. Corticosteroids can help reduce inflammation anywhere in your body.The doctor will not give the patient this medication if they don’t have to as it has numerous side effects, including a puffy face, excessive facial hair, night sweats, sleeplessness and hyperactivity. Some more serious side effects include high blood pressure, diabetes and osteoporosis, which is also known as brittle bones, causing fractures in bones. If the medication is taken by younger people it can lead to underdeveloped growth. They only use this medication if the symptoms and the inflammation are moderate to severe. They will only use it none of the other medications respond. Corticosteroids are not for long-term use.But, they can be used for around three to four months. Immune sys tem suppressors are drugs that also reduce inflammation; they target the immune system rather than directly targeting and treating the inflamed area. This drug is sometimes used combined with other drugs such as a combination of Sulfasalazine and Mesalamine has been shown to work better than just taking the drugs alone. Surgery Surgical procedures include strictureplasty, resection, colectomy, and proctocolectomy. During a strictureplasty, the surgeon guides an inflated balloon attached to a catheter through the intestine.If the balloon encounters a restricted area, it may indicate there is a narrowing in the intestine. To open up the blocked area, a cut is made lengthwise along the intestine. The cut is then sewn up in the opposite direction, which has the overall effect of widening the obstructed area without removing any organs. If there is more than one obstructed area it may be treated during one surgery. Resection is where they take part of the infected organ away from the bod y. A colectomy is a procedure that sees the colon being removed from the body, either partially or fully.Proctocolectomy is the surgical removal of the rectum and all or part of the colon. Bibliography Website | What is it for| http://www. nhs. uk/Conditions/Coronary-heart-disease/Pages/Diagnosis. aspx| Coronary heart disease – Diagnosis  | http://www. nhs. uk/Conditions/Coronary-heart-disease/Pages/Symptoms. aspx| Coronary heart disease – Symptoms  | http://www. nhs. uk/NHSEngland/NSF/Pages/Coronaryheartdisease. aspx| Coronary heart disease- treatments   | http://pennstatehershey. adam. com/content. aspx? productId=10;pid=10;gid=000103| Crohn’s disease|

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Blacks in the Revolutionary War Essay

Blacks in the Revolutionary War1 Blacks in the Revolutionary War African American Studies Latasha Gating September 20, 2012 LaChanda K. Clemons Blacks in the Revolutionary War2 Looking back at the history of the United States, it is evident that the Revolutionary War impacted the country a great deal. It was the first war fought with slaves thanks to Lord Dunmore’s controversial proclamation. Historian Benjamin Quarles stated â€Å"The Negros role in the Revolutionary War can be best understood by realizing his major loyalty was not to a place nor to a people but to a principle. There were black loyalists, black sailors, black patriots and black regiments who fought and died in the name of Independence. It has been estimated that over 5,000 African Americans served as soldiers for the Continental army and more than 20,000 fought for the British cause. Slavery in Colonial America is noted to have begun in 1619 with the arrival of 20 African slaves on the Dutch ship named Man-o f-war. The slaves made up over half the population in the colonies although they were seen more so as property instead of people. In 1776, there were about 500,000 African American men, women and children slaves. Everyone had a reason for taking part in the war. There were factors that motivated the blacks to take part in such a battle as well. The text mentions that when it came to fighting between the Patriots on one side and their Loyalist American allies on the other, African Americans joined the side that offered freedom. Having that choice of gaining freedom in exchange for serving in the military was indeed motivation. Other motives for blacks were the Blacks in the Revolutionary War3 desire for adventure, belief in the justice and the goals of the revolution and the possibility of receiving a bounty. The Continental navy and The Royal Navy signed blacks into the navy because of the manpower shortages at sea. Some blacks had been captured from the royal navy and used by the Patriots on their vessels. They also served as seamen on British vessel. Slaves and free slaves served as seaman. Because so many Patriot leaders resisted employing black troops, by mid-1775, the British had taken the initiative in recruiting African Americans. Revolutionary leaders feared using blacks in the arm forces. They were afraid that the slaves who were armed would uprise against them. In May 1775 the Massachusetts Committee of Safety put a stop to enlisting slaves in the armies of the colony. However, this did not apply to the blacks who were already serving in the army. 1775-1783 the navy recruits freed black slaves and runaway slaves. Lord Dunmore, born John Murray, was the last Royal Governor of Virginia. Because he was short of men, Dunmore issued a proclamation stating that all able bodied men to assist him in the defense of the colony, including the slaves of rebels. He promised freedom to the blacks who served. After doing so in a month he had 800 soldiers. The purpose of his Proclamation was to declare martial law and to encourage slaves of rebels in Virginia to leave their masters and support the loyalist cause â€Å"All indentured servants, Negroes, or others†¦free that are able Blacks in the Revolutionary War4 and willing to bear arms†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Such an act outrage Virginians. Those that took Dunmore up on his word range between 800 and 2,000. The Virginia Congress replied to his Proclamation with the Dunmore’s wasn’t as successful as his plan out, the number of his soldiers decreased due to smallpox outbreaks. Dunmore’s Proclamation was the first mass emancipation of slaves in American history. After the war ended, over 5,000 blacks left for Jamaica or St. Augustine because they were the property of loyalist that they would never gain their freedom from slavery. By 1786, many were back in bondage. There were those who were Patriots’ slaves but sided with the British were promised their freedom and was granted such. Many black patriots found that the post war military held no rewards for them. So many men served in the armed forces which meant that their wives were left behind and had to take on their husband roles. Their lives changed a great deal during the Revolutionary War. The women, who could, serve the Colonial military forces and interacted with the male soldiers in camp. They were usually the wives and daughters of the male soldiers. The cooked, did laundry and cared for those that were sick. There also some who fought in the military battles: Margaret Cochran Corbin and Captain Molly. Molloy’s husband had taught her how to load and fire cannons. Black women, many of whom were slaves, served both Americans and the British in the capacity of nurses, laundresses and cooks. Blacks in the Revolutionary War5 Many African American soldiers fought and died for the sake of the Revolutionary War. The war ended in 1783, slavery was dying in the North and declining in Chesapeake. What was truly the purpose of Blacks fighting if they did not attain freedom at the end of the war? Were the lives lost beneficially to the slaves or was it just a gimmick to get blacks to stand in stops where white soldiers have already died in. Blacks in the Revolutionary War6 Bibliography Georgii, Colette. May 30, 2007. Slavery in Colonial America. www. helium. com/items/365359-Colonial-Early- Gabriel, Brian. Women’s roles and lives in the revolutionary war. http://www. ehow. com/) (http://blackloyalist. com/canadiandigitalcollection/story/revolution/dunmore. htm) Halpern, Rick (2002). Slavery and Emancipation. Blackwell Publishing. Pp. 90-91 Harold, Stanley, Hine, W. C. , Hine, D. C. The African American Odyssey: Volume 1, 5th Edition. Prentice Hall. 2011. Pearson Education, Inc. . (Scribner, Robert L. (1983). Revolutionary Virginia, the Road to Independence. University of Virginia Press. Pp. xxiv. ) ——————————————– [ 2 ]. Scribner, Robert L. (1983). Revolutionary Virginia, the Road to Independence. University of Virginia Press. Pp. xxiv [ 3 ]. Halpern, Rick (2002). Slavery and Emancipation. Blackwell Publishing. Pp. 90-91 [ 4 ]. Harold, Stanley, Hine, W. C. , Hine, D. C. The African American Odyssey: Volume 1, 5th Edition. Prentice Hall. 2011. Pearson Education, Inc. [ 6 ]. Gabriel, Brian. Women’s roles and lives in the revolutionary war. http://www. ehow. com/)

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Best Analysis The American Dream in The Great Gatsby

Best Analysis The American Dream in The Great Gatsby SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips The Great Gatsby is a tragic love story on the surface, but it's most commonly understood as a pessimistic critique of the American Dream. In the novel, Jay Gatsby overcomes his poor past to gain an incredible amount of money and a limited amount of social cache in 1920s NYC, only to be rejected by the "old money" crowd. He then gets killed after being tangled up with them. Through Gatsby's life, as well as that of the Wilsons', Fitzgerald critiques the idea that America is a meritocracy where anyone can rise to the top with enough hard work. We will explore how this theme plays out in the plot, briefly analyze some key quotes about it, as well as do some character analysis and broader analysis of topics surrounding the American Dream in The Great Gatsby. Roadmap What is the American Dream?The American Dream in the Great Gatsby plotKey American Dream quotesAnalyzing characters via the American DreamCommon discussion and essay topics Quick Note on Our Citations Our citation format in this guide is (chapter.paragraph). We're using this system since there are many editions of Gatsby, so using page numbers would only work for students with our copy of the book. To find a quotation we cite via chapter and paragraph in your book, you can either eyeball it (Paragraph 1-50: beginning of chapter; 50-100: middle of chapter; 100-on: end of chapter), or use the search function if you're using an online or eReader version of the text. What Exactly Is "The American Dream"? The American Dream is the belief that anyone, regardless of race, class, gender, or nationality, can be successful in America (read: rich) if they just work hard enough. The American Dream thus presents a pretty rosy view of American society that ignores problems like systemic racism and misogyny, xenophobia, tax evasion or state tax avoidance, and income inequality. It also presumes a myth of class equality, when the reality is America has a pretty well-developed class hierarchy. The 1920s in particular was a pretty tumultuous time due to increased immigration (and the accompanying xenophobia), changing women's roles (spurred by the right to vote, which was won in 1919), and extraordinary income inequality. The country was also in the midst of an economic boom, which fueled the belief that anyone could "strike it rich" on Wall Street. However, this rapid economic growth was built on a bubble which popped in 1929. The Great Gatsby was published in 1925, well before the crash, but through its wry descriptions of the ultra-wealthy, it seems to somehow predict that the fantastic wealth on display in 1920s New York was just as ephemeral as one of Gatsby's parties. In any case, the novel, just by being set in the 1920s, is unlikely to present an optimistic view of the American Dream, or at least a version of the dream that's inclusive to all genders, ethnicities, and incomes. With that background in mind, let's jump into the plot! The American Dream in The Great Gatsby Chapter 1 places us in a particular year- 1922- and gives us some background about WWI. This is relevant, since the 1920s is presented as a time of hollow decadence among the wealthy, as evidenced especially by the parties in Chapters 2 and 3. And as we mentioned above, the 1920s were a particularly tense time in America. We also meet George and Myrtle Wilson in Chapter 2, both working class people who are working to improve their lot in life, George through his work, and Myrtle through her affair with Tom Buchanan. We learn about Gatsby's goal in Chapter 4: to win Daisy back. Despite everything he owns, including fantastic amounts of money and an over-the-top mansion, for Gatsby, Daisy is the ultimate status symbol. So in Chapter 5, when Daisy and Gatsby reunite and begin an affair, it seems like Gatsby could, in fact, achieve his goal. In Chapter 6, we learn about Gatsby's less-than-wealthy past, which not only makes him look like the star of a rags-to-riches story, it makes Gatsby himself seem like someone in pursuit of the American Dream, and for him the personification of that dream is Daisy. However, in Chapters 7 and 8, everything comes crashing down: Daisy refuses to leave Tom, Myrtle is killed, and George breaks down and kills Gatsby and then himself, leaving all of the "strivers" dead and the old money crowd safe. Furthermore, we learn in those last chapters that Gatsby didn't even achieve all his wealth through hard work, like the American Dream would stipulate- instead, he earned his money through crime. (He did work hard and honestly under Dan Cody, but lost Dan Cody's inheritance to his ex-wife.) In short, things do not turn out well for our dreamers in the novel! Thus, the novel ends with Nick's sad meditation on the lost promise of the American Dream. You can read a detailed analysis of these last lines in our summary of the novel's ending. This novel is just one very large burst bubble. Key American Dream Quotes In this section we analyze some of the most important quotes that relate to the American Dream in the book. But I didn't call to him for he gave a sudden intimation that he was content to be alonehe stretched out his arms toward the dark water in a curious way, and far as I was from him I could have sworn he was trembling. Involuntarily I glanced seawardand distinguished nothing except a single green light, minute and far away, that might have been the end of a dock. (1.152) In our first glimpse of Jay Gatsby, we see him reaching towards something far off, something in sight but definitely out of reach. This famous image of the green light is often understood as part of The Great Gatsby's meditation on The American Dream- the idea that people are always reaching towards something greater than themselves that is just out of reach. You can read more about this in our post all about the green light. The fact that this yearning image is our introduction to Gatsby foreshadows his unhappy end and also marks him as a dreamer, rather than people like Tom or Daisy who were born with money and don't need to strive for anything so far off. Over the great bridge, with the sunlight through the girders making a constant flicker upon the moving cars, with the city rising up across the river in white heaps and sugar lumps all built with a wish out of non-olfactory money. The city seen from the Queensboro Bridge is always the city seen for the first time, in its first wild promise of all the mystery and the beauty in the world. A dead man passed us in a hearse heaped with blooms, followed by two carriages with drawn blinds and by more cheerful carriages for friends. The friends looked out at us with the tragic eyes and short upper lips of south-eastern Europe, and I was glad that the sight of Gatsby's splendid car was included in their somber holiday. As we crossed Blackwell's Island a limousine passed us, driven by a white chauffeur, in which sat three modish Negroes, two bucks and a girl. I laughed aloud as the yolks of their eyeballs rolled toward us in haughty rivalry. "Anything can happen now that we've slid over this bridge," I thought; "anything at all. . . ." Even Gatsby could happen, without any particular wonder. (4.55-8) Early in the novel, we get this mostly optimistic illustration of the American Dream- we see people of different races and nationalities racing towards NYC, a city of unfathomable possibility. This moment has all the classic elements of the American Dream- economic possibility, racial and religious diversity, a carefree attitude. At this moment, it does feel like "anything can happen," even a happy ending. However, this rosy view eventually gets undermined by the tragic events later in the novel. And even at this point, Nick's condescension towards the people in the other cars reinforces America's racial hierarchy that disrupts the idea of the American Dream. There is even a little competition at play, a "haughty rivalry" at play between Gatsby's car and the one bearing the "modish Negroes." Nick "laughs aloud" at this moment, suggesting he thinks it's amusing that the passengers in this other car see them as equals, or even rivals to be bested. In other words, he seems to firmly believe in the racial hierarchy Tom defends in Chapter 1, even if it doesn't admit it honestly. His heart beat faster and faster as Daisy's white face came up to his own. He knew that when he kissed this girl, and forever wed his unutterable visions to her perishable breath, his mind would never romp again like the mind of God. So he waited, listening for a moment longer to the tuning fork that had been struck upon a star. Then he kissed her. At his lips' touch she blossomed for him like a flower and the incarnation was complete. (6.134) This moment explicitly ties Daisy to all of Gatsby's larger dreams for a better life- to his American Dream. This sets the stage for the novel's tragic ending, since Daisy cannot hold up under the weight of the dream Gatsby projects onto her. Instead, she stays with Tom Buchanan, despite her feelings for Gatsby. Thus when Gatsby fails to win over Daisy, he also fails to achieve his version of the American Dream. This is why so many people read the novel as a somber or pessimistic take on the American Dream, rather than an optimistic one. the moon rose higher the inessential houses began to melt away until gradually I became aware of the old island here that flowered once for Dutch sailors' eyesa fresh, green breast of the new world. Its vanished trees, the trees that had made way for Gatsby's house, had once pandered in whispers to the last and greatest of all human dreams; for a transitory enchanted moment man must have held his breath in the presence of this continent, compelled into an aesthetic contemplation he neither understood nor desired, face to face for the last time in history with something commensurate to his capacity for wonder. And as I sat there brooding on the old, unknown world, I thought of Gatsby's wonder when he first picked out the green light at the end of Daisy's dock. He had come a long way to this blue lawn and his dream must have seemed so close that he could hardly fail to grasp it. He did not know that it was already behind him, somewhere back in that vast obscurity beyond the city, where the dark fields of the republic rolled on under the night." (9.151-152) The closing pages of the novel reflect at length on the American Dream, in an attitude that seems simultaneously mournful, appreciative, and pessimistic. It also ties back to our first glimpse of Gatsby, reaching out over the water towards the Buchanan's green light. Nick notes that Gatsby's dream was "already behind him" then (or in other words, it was impossible to attain). But still, he finds something to admire in how Gatsby still hoped for a better life, and constantly reached out toward that brighter future. For a full consideration of these last lines and what they could mean, see our analysis of the novel's ending. Want to get better grades and test scores? We can help. PrepScholar Tutors is the world's best tutoring service. We combine world-class expert tutors with our proprietary teaching techniques. Our students have gotten A's on thousands of classes, perfect 5's on AP tests, and ludicrously high SAT Subject Test scores. Whether you need help with science, math, English, social science, or more, we've got you covered. Get better grades today with PrepScholar Tutors. Analyzing Characters Through the American Dream An analysis of the characters in terms of the American Dream usually leads to a pretty cynical take on the American Dream. Most character analysis centered on the American Dream will necessarily focus on Gatsby, George, or Myrtle (the true strivers in the novel), though as we'll discuss below, the Buchanans can also provide some interesting layers of discussion. For character analysis that incorporates the American Dream, carefully consider your chosen character's motivations and desires, and how the novel does (or doesn't!) provide glimpses of the dream's fulfillment for them. Gatsby Gatsby himself is obviously the best candidate for writing about the American Dream- he comes from humble roots (he's the son of poor farmers from North Dakota) and rises to be notoriously wealthy, only for everything to slip away from him in the end. Many people also incorporate Daisy into their analyses as the physical representation of Gatsby's dream. However, definitely consider the fact that in the traditional American Dream, people achieve their goals through honest hard work, but in Gatsby's case, he very quickly acquires a large amount of money through crime. Gatsby does attempt the hard work approach, through his years of service to Dan Cody, but that doesn't work out since Cody's ex-wife ends up with the entire inheritance. So instead he turns to crime, and only then does he manage to achieve his desired wealth. So while Gatsby's story arc resembles a traditional rags-to-riches tale, the fact that he gained his money immorally complicates the idea that he is a perfect avatar for the American Dream. Furthermore, his success obviously doesn't last- he still pines for Daisy and loses everything in his attempt to get her back. In other words, Gatsby's huge dreams, all precariously wedded to Daisy ("He knew that when he kissed this girl, and forever wed his unutterable visions to her perishable breath, his mind would never romp again like the mind of God" (6.134)) are as flimsy and flight as Daisy herself. George and Myrtle Wilson This couple also represents people aiming at the dream- George owns his own shop and is doing his best to get business, though is increasingly worn down by the harsh demands of his life, while Myrtle chases after wealth and status through an affair with Tom. Both are disempowered due to the lack of money at their own disposal- Myrtle certainly has access to some of the "finer things" through Tom but has to deal with his abuse, while George is unable to leave his current life and move West since he doesn't have the funds available. He even has to make himself servile to Tom in an attempt to get Tom to sell his car, a fact that could even cause him to overlook the evidence of his wife's affair. So neither character is on the upward trajectory that the American Dream promises, at least during the novel. In the end, everything goes horribly wrong for both George and Myrtle, suggesting that in this world, it's dangerous to strive for more than you're given. George and Myrtle's deadly fates, along with Gatsby's, help illustrate the novel's pessimistic attitude toward the American Dream. After all, how unfair is it that the couple working to improve their position in society (George and Myrtle) both end up dead, while Tom, who dragged Myrtle into an increasingly dangerous situation, and Daisy, who killed her, don't face any consequences? And on top of that they are fabulously wealthy? The American Dream certainly is not alive and well for the poor Wilsons. Tom and Daisy as Antagonists to the American Dream We've talked quite a bit already about Gatsby, George, and Myrtle- the three characters who come from humble roots and try to climb the ranks in 1920s New York. But what about the other major characters, especially the ones born with money? What is their relationship to the American Dream? Specifically, Tom and Daisy have old money, and thus they don't need the American Dream, since they were born with America already at their feet. Perhaps because of this, they seem to directly antagonize the dream- Daisy by refusing Gatsby, and Tom by helping to drag the Wilsons into tragedy. This is especially interesting because unlike Gatsby, Myrtle, and George, who actively hope and dream of a better life, Daisy and Tom are described as bored and "careless," and end up instigating a large amount of tragedy through their own recklessness. In other words, income inequality and the vastly different starts in life the characters have strongly affected their outcomes. The way they choose to live their lives, their morality (or lack thereof), and how much they dream doesn't seem to matter. This, of course, is tragic and antithetical to the idea of the American Dream, which claims that class should be irrelevant and anyone can rise to the top. Daisy as a Personification of the American Dream As we discuss in our post on money and materialism in The Great Gatsby, Daisy's voice is explicitly tied to money by Gatsby: "Her voice is full of money," he said suddenly. That was it. I'd never understood before. It was full of moneythat was the inexhaustible charm that rose and fell in it, the jingle of it, the cymbals' song of it. . . . High in a white palace the king's daughter, the golden girl. . . . (7.105-6) If Daisy's voice promises money, and the American Dream is explicitly linked to wealth, it's not hard to argue that Daisy herself- along with the green light at the end of her dock- stands in for the American Dream. In fact, as Nick goes on to describe Daisy as "High in a white palace the king's daughter, the golden girl," he also seems to literally describe Daisy as a prize, much like the princess at the end of a fairy tale (or even Princess Peach at the end of a Mario game!). But Daisy, of course, is only human- flawed, flighty, and ultimately unable to embody the huge fantasy Gatsby projects onto her. So this, in turn, means that the American Dream itself is just a fantasy, a concept too flimsy to actually hold weight, especially in the fast-paced, dog-eat-dog world of 1920s America. Furthermore, you should definitely consider the tension between the fact that Daisy represents Gatsby's ultimate goal, but at the same time (as we discussed above), her actual life is the opposite of the American Dream: she is born with money and privilege, likely dies with it all intact, and there are no consequences to how she chooses to live her life in between. Can Female Characters Achieve the American Dream? Finally, it's interesting to compare and contrast some of the female characters using the lens of the American Dream. Let's start with Daisy, who is unhappy in her marriage and, despite a brief attempt to leave it, remains with Tom, unwilling to give up the status and security their marriage provides. At first, it may seem like Daisy doesn't dream at all, so of course she ends up unhappy. But consider the fact that Daisy was already born into the highest level of American society. The expectation placed on her, as a wealthy woman, was never to pursue something greater, but simply to maintain her status. She did that by marrying Tom, and it's understandable why she wouldn't risk the uncertainty and loss of status that would come through divorce and marriage to a bootlegger. Again, Daisy seems to typify the "anti-American" dream, in that she was born into a kind of aristocracy and simply has to maintain her position, not fight for something better. In contrast, Myrtle, aside from Gatsby, seems to be the most ambitiously in pursuit of getting more than she was given in life. She parlays her affair with Tom into an apartment, nice clothes, and parties, and seems to revel in her newfound status. But of course, she is knocked down the hardest, killed for her involvement with the Buchanans, and specifically for wrongfully assuming she had value to them. Considering that Gatsby did have a chance to leave New York and distance himself from the unfolding tragedy, but Myrtle was the first to be killed, you could argue the novel presents an even bleaker view of the American Dream where women are concerned. Even Jordan Baker, who seems to be living out a kind of dream by playing golf and being relatively independent, is tied to her family's money and insulated from consequences by it, making her a pretty poor representation of the dream. And of course, since her end game also seems to be marriage, she doesn't push the boundaries of women's roles as far as she might wish. So while the women all push the boundaries of society's expectations of them in certain ways, they either fall in line or are killed, which definitely undermines the rosy of idea that anyone, regardless of gender, can make it in America. The American Dream as shown in Gatsby becomes even more pessimistic through the lens of the female characters. Focusing the lens on the women is predictably depressing. Common Essay Questions/Discussion Topics Now let's work through some of the more frequently brought up subjects for discussion. #1: Was Gatsby's dream worth it? Was all the work, time, and patience worth it for him? Like me, you might immediately think "of course it wasn't worth it! Gatsby lost everything, not to mention the Wilsons got caught up in the tragedy and ended up dead!" So if you want to make the more obvious "the dream wasn't worth it" argument, you could point to the unraveling that happens at the end of the novel (including the deaths of Myrtle, Gatsby and George) and how all Gatsby's achievements are for nothing, as evidenced by the sparse attendance of his funeral. However, you could definitely take the less obvious route and argue that Gatsby's dream was worth it, despite the tragic end. First of all, consider Jay's unique characterization in the story: "He was a son of Goda phrase which, if it means anything, means just thatand he must be about His Father's Business, the service of a vast, vulgar and meretricious beauty" (6.7). In other words, Gatsby has a larger-than-life persona and he never would have been content to remain in North Dakota to be poor farmers like his parents. Even if he ends up living a shorter life, he certainly lived a full one full of adventure. His dreams of wealth and status took him all over the world on Dan Cody's yacht, to Louisville where he met and fell in love with Daisy, to the battlefields of WWI, to the halls of Oxford University, and then to the fast-paced world of Manhattan in the early 1920s, when he earned a fortune as a bootlegger. In fact, it seems Jay lived several lives in the space of just half a normal lifespan. In short, to argue that Gatsby's dream was worth it, you should point to his larger-than-life conception of himself and the fact that he could have only sought happiness through striving for something greater than himself, even if that ended up being deadly in the end. #2: In the Langston Hughes poem "A Dream Deferred," Hughes asks questions about what happens to postponed dreams. How does Fitzgerald examine this issue of deferred dreams? What do you think are the effects of postponing our dreams? How can you apply this lesson to your own life? If you're thinking about "deferred dreams" in The Great Gatsby, the big one is obviously Gatsby's deferred dream for Daisy- nearly five years pass between his initial infatuation and his attempt in the novel to win her back, an attempt that obviously backfires. You can examine various aspects of Gatsby's dream- the flashbacks to his first memories of Daisy in Chapter 8, the moment when they reunite in Chapter 5, or the disastrous consequences of the confrontation of Chapter 7- to illustrate Gatsby's deferred dream. You could also look at George Wilson's postponed dream of going West, or Myrtle's dream of marrying a wealthy man of "breeding"- George never gets the funds to go West, and is instead mired in the Valley of Ashes, while Myrtle's attempt to achieve her dream after 12 years of marriage through an affair ends in tragedy. Apparently, dreams deferred are dreams doomed to fail. As Nick Carraway says, "you can't repeat the past"- the novel seems to imply there is a small window for certain dreams, and when the window closes, they can no longer be attained. This is pretty pessimistic, and for the prompt's personal reflection aspect, I wouldn't say you should necessarily "apply this lesson to your own life" straightforwardly. But it is worth noting that certain opportunities are fleeting, and perhaps it's wiser to seek out newer and/or more attainable ones, rather than pining over a lost chance. Any prompt like this one which has a section of more personal reflection gives you freedom to tie in your own experiences and point of view, so be thoughtful and think of good examples from your own life! Want to get better grades and test scores? We can help. PrepScholar Tutors is the world's best tutoring service. We combine world-class expert tutors with our proprietary teaching techniques. Our students have gotten A's on thousands of classes, perfect 5's on AP tests, and ludicrously high SAT Subject Test scores. Whether you need help with science, math, English, social science, or more, we've got you covered. Get better grades today with PrepScholar Tutors. #3: Explain how the novel does or does not demonstrate the death of the American Dream. Is the main theme of Gatsby indeed "the withering American Dream"? What does the novel offer about American identity? In this prompt, another one that zeroes in on the dead or dying American Dream, you could discuss how the destruction of three lives (Gatsby, George, Myrtle) and the cynical portrayal of the old money crowd illustrates a dead, or dying American Dream. After all, if the characters who dream end up dead, and the ones who were born into life with money and privilege get to keep it without consequence, is there any room at all for the idea that less-privileged people can work their way up? In terms of what the novel says about American identity, there are a few threads you could pick up- one is Nick's comment in Chapter 9 about the novel really being a story about (mid)westerners trying (and failing) to go East: "I see now that this has been a story of the West, after allTom and Gatsby, Daisy and Jordan and I, were all Westerners, and perhaps we possessed some deficiency in common which made us subtly unadaptable to Eastern life" (9.125). This observation suggests an American identity that is determined by birthplace, and that within the American identity there are smaller, inescapable points of identification. Furthermore, for those in the novel not born into money, the American identity seems to be about striving to end up with more wealth and status. But in terms of the portrayal of the old money set, particularly Daisy, Tom, and Jordan, the novel presents a segment of American society that is essentially aristocratic- you have to be born into it. In that regard, too, the novel presents a fractured American identity, with different lives possible based on how much money you are born with. In short, I think the novel disrupts the idea of a unified American identity or American dream, by instead presenting a tragic, fractured, and rigid American society, one that is divided based on both geographic location and social class. #4: Most would consider dreams to be positive motivators to achieve success, but the characters in the novel often take their dreams of ideal lives too far. Explain how characters' American Dreams cause them to have pain when they could have been content with more modest ambitions. Gatsby is an obvious choice here- his pursuit of money and status, particularly through Daisy, leads him to ruin. There were many points when perhaps Gatsby ;could have been happy with what he achieved (especially after his apparently successful endeavors in the war, if he had remained at Oxford, or even after amassing a great amount of wealth as a bootlegger) but instead he kept striving upward, which ultimately lead to his downfall. You can flesh this argument out with the quotations in Chapters 6 and 8 about Gatsby's past, along with his tragic death. Myrtle would be another good choice for this type of prompt. In a sense, she seems to be living her ideal life in her affair with Tom- she has a fancy NYC apartment, hosts parties, and gets to act sophisticated- but these pleasures end up gravely hurting George, and of course her association with Tom Buchanan gets her killed. Nick, too, if he had been happy with his family's respectable fortune and his girlfriend out west, might have avoided the pain of knowing Gatsby and the general sense of despair he was left with. You might be wondering about George- after all, isn't he someone also dreaming of a better life? However, there aren't many instances of George taking his dreams of an ideal life "too far." In fact, he struggles just to make one car sale so that he can finally move out West with Myrtle. Also, given that his current situation in the Valley of Ashes is quite bleak, it's hard to say that striving upward gave him pain. #5: The Great Gatsby is, among other things, a sobering and even ominous commentary on the dark side of the American dream. Discuss this theme, incorporating the conflicts of East Egg vs. West Egg and old money vs. new money. What does the American dream mean to Gatsby? What did the American Dream mean to Fitzgerald? How does morality fit into achieving the American dream? This prompt allows you to consider pretty broadly the novel's attitude toward the American Dream, with emphasis on "sobering and even ominous" commentary. Note that Fitzgerald seems to be specifically mocking the stereotypical rags to riches story here- ;especially since he draws the Dan Cody narrative almost note for note from the work of someone like Horatio Alger, whose books were almost universally about rich men schooling young, entrepreneurial boys in the ways of the world. In other words, you should discuss how the Great Gatsby seems to turn the idea of the American Dream as described in the quote on its head: Gatsby does achieve a rags-to-riches rise, but it doesn't last. All of Gatsby's hard work for Dan Cody, after all, didn't pay off since he lost the inheritance. So instead, Gatsby turned to crime after the war to quickly gain a ton of money. Especially since Gatsby finally achieves his great wealth through dubious means, the novel further undermines the classic image of someone working hard and honestly to go from rags to riches. If you're addressing this prompt or a similar one, make sure to focus on the darker aspects of the American Dream, including the dark conclusion to the novel and Daisy and Tom's protection from any real consequences. (This would also allow you to considering morality, and how morally bankrupt the characters are.) #6: What is the current state of the American Dream? This is a more outward-looking prompt, that allows you to consider current events today to either be generally optimistic (the American dream is alive and well) or pessimistic (it's as dead as it is in The Great Gatsby). You have dozens of potential current events to use as evidence for either argument, but consider especially immigration and immigration reform, mass incarceration, income inequality, education, and health care in America as good potential examples to use as you argue about the current state of the American Dream. Your writing will be especially powerful if you can point to some specific current events to support your argument. What's Next? In this post, we discussed how important money is to the novel's version of the American Dream. You can read even more about money and materialism in The Great Gatsby right here. Want to indulge in a little materialism of your own? Take a look through these 15 must-have items for any Great Gatsby fan. Get complete guides to Jay Gatsby, George Wilson and Myrtle Wilson to get even more background on the "dreamers" in the novel. Like we discussed above, the green light is often seen as a stand-in for the idea of the American Dream. Read more about this crucial symbol here. Need help getting to grips with other literary works? Take a spin through our analyses of The Crucible, The Cask of Amontillado, and "Do not go gentle into this good night" to see analysis in action. You might also find our explanations of point of view, rhetorical devices, imagery, and literary elements and devices helpful. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Monday, October 21, 2019

Become Good at Writing a Five-Paragraph Essay

Become Good at Writing a Five-Paragraph Essay How to Write a Five-Paragraph Essay A five-paragraph essay is considered to be one of the most common writing assignments at schools and colleges. In most cases, teachers provide students with a writing prompt. It is a good formula that gives students the opportunity to develop a topic in the sufficient depth and length. But don`t panic if you are unsure whether you can meet some five-paragraph essay requirements. Just search for essay writing reviews in the Internet to find the custom writing service where you could get the professional assistance. But now let`s learn how to write a five-paragraph essay on the example of such essay topic: Today’s food travels thousands of miles before it reaches customers. Is this a positive or negative trend?   Introduction It is very important to write an effective essay introduction because in this part you reveal the main idea of your paper, provide relevant background information, guide readers and try to grab their attention. You have to open your essay in an engaging way to generate interest in your specific topic. There are many useful strategies for writing introductions that can help you do it successfully. You can ask a question, present a problem, use a startling statistics, address your readers directly or even tell an anecdote. But there are some things you should avoid in your introductory paragraph. Don`t use overworn expressions, don`t apologize and don`t be too obvious.   Example: Nowadays, we do not rely exceptionally on the locally grown food anymore because we have a wonderful opportunity to buy produce from all over the world. While this trend has some obvious advantages to consumers, I would argue that overall transporting food over long distances has some negative sides. The first body paragraph This part of your essay should be dedicated to the most powerful argument. Introduce what your paragraph will be about with a topic sentence. Then introduce your supporting details. Clarify the information you provided with your examples and explain its significance to the argument of your essay. Don`t forget to set up the transition to the next paragraph.    Example: The strongest argument against importing food is environmental. According to some studies, transport and the use of fossil fuels is one of the leading causes of global warming and climate change. This means that if we want to lead a greener lifestyle, we should do our best to minimize transportation. The second body paragraph The second paragraph usually contains the weakest point. Write a topic sentence, explain your argument and present your argument to support it. Make sure that every sentence relates directly to the main idea of the whole paragraph.    Example: Another point that needs to be considered is the impact of transporting food on local farmers and traditional ways of life. Farmers are unable to compete in price with the supermarkets that import cheap and not always high-quality products from other countries. It also has the negative impact on traditional communities that rely on those farms for employment and trade. The third body paragraph Follow the same pattern as the first and second body paragraphs. Don`t forget to include these essential elements: a topic sentence, evidence, explanation, and a concluding sentence.   Example: A further consideration is that food that has travelled across the world is not as healthy as locally grown produce. The simple point is that the further food travels, the less fresh it will be. Therefore, it would be preferable if supermarkets did not transport food from abroad.    Conclusion Your main task in the concluding paragraph is to repeat your argument in the light of everything you have analyzed. You have to make a strong final impression on your audience, stress the importance of your thesis statement and give the essay a sense of completeness.   Example: In conclusion, I believe that the trend for transporting food over long distances is undesirable because it is environmentally unfriendly, threatens local communities and results in less healthy options for consumers. A few examples of five-paragraph essay topics: Should nuclear weapons be outlawed worldwide? Are atheists less moral than theists are? Can online dating replace meeting a person in real life? Does the media create unrealistic expectations of relationships and marriage? Is it okay for parents to monitor teens` Internet use? What effect did human curiosity in relation to our place? Is there too much pressure on teenagers to go to college?

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Ulterior and Alterior

Ulterior and Alterior Ulterior and Alterior Ulterior and Alterior By Maeve Maddox A reader brought alterior to my attention by asking if a use of â€Å"ulterior motive† he read in an article should have been â€Å"alterior motive.† Although I found several speculative â€Å"definitions† of alterior on various sites, neither the OED nor Merriam-Webster offers an entry for this word. Because it seems always to occur with motive or motives, I conclude that alterior is an error for ulterior. The adjective ulterior derives from Latin ulterior: â€Å"further, more distant.† An ulterior motive is one that lies beyond the apparent motive. For example, when a popular product develops a feature that makes the product more convenient, the apparent motive is to make the product easier for the customer to use. The ulterior motive is to earn more money by selling more merchandise. The mistaken use of alterior is especially common on sites related to emotional involvements, television, sports, and political opinion. Here are some examples, with corrections: INCORRECT: Im not convinced hes doing anything out of the kindness of his heart for women or anyone. Feels like he always has alterior motives.- Soap opera blog. CORRECT : Im not convinced hes doing anything out of the kindness of his heart for women or anyone. Feels like he always has ulterior motives. INCORRECT: The thing that bothers me the most is that there is no honesty or real emotion into anything that they say. Everything they say has an alterior motive.- Therapy blog. CORRECT : The thing that bothers me the most is that there is no honesty or real emotion in anything that they say. Everything they say has an ulterior motive. INCORRECT: People like to put on fronts and might have alterior motives when you dont have a shared history that can easily fool you.- Quora user. CORRECT : People like to put on fronts and might have ulterior motives when you dont have a shared history that can easily fool you. INCORRECT: The [remarks of] the salesman sounded like they came from a politician. He seemed to dodge every question, whether it be from lack of knowledge or alterior motives I dont know.- Yelp review. CORRECT : The [remarks of] the salesman sounded like they came from a politician. He seemed to dodge every question, whether it be from lack of knowledge or ulterior motives I dont know. INCORRECT: I usually appreciate good sportsmanship, but that was just weird. It was very obvious that there was an alterior motive, because of the way the groups were separated.  - TV fan blog. CORRECT : I usually appreciate good sportsmanship, but that was just weird. It was very obvious that there was an ulterior motive, because of the way the groups were separated.   Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Misused Words category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:What Is Irony? (With Examples)The Writing ProcessEducational vs. Educative

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Conflicts and disputes on commercial projects Essay

Conflicts and disputes on commercial projects - Essay Example The business deal is characterised by a choice to close the deal or walk away from it and on the other side a contractual agreement is entered into out of shear necessity. Contractual agreements have no option of walking away from hence senior managers should be aware of this fact before appending their signatures on the dotted lines. Even if a project and its distribution of work is better defined and the parties are better prepared and even if the contract is better drafted there still will be changes that give rise to disagreements between parties. In any commercial project, there will be unforeseeable changes that will require to be handled by the parties in a commercial manner. Hence there is need for an effective way of handling such disagreements for the project to be completed on time and with satisfactory results for the parties involved (Altfeld, 2010, p. 3-7). The presence of attitudes and aspects such as confrontation, problem solving, compromising, smoothing and withdraw al could all be applied by a strong facilitator to solve conflicts between team members. Leaders need to understand that most conflicts, in fact, contribute enormously to the experience and well performance of a team and for that reason must be regarded as constructive elements of multi-framework as long as the conflict is managed properly and channelled by a facilitator. Facilitation helps others to voice their views comfortably and avoid power and personality conflicts, (Spiess & Felding, 2008, p.407) According to Lowe and Leiringer, (2006, p.264) disputes and conflicts on projects or contracts are unpleasant and unavoidable at the same time as they divert valuable resources from the overall aim, which must be completion on time, on budget and to the quality specified to other unnecessary tasks such as dispute or conflict negotiations. In addition, they generally cost money and take time to solve, and they can destroy relationships which may have taken years to develop. Conflict i n part of western societies and idioms; to use the academic jargon, there is a western dialect argument idiom. Conflict can be said to be a part of dynamic capitalism and an integral part of commercialism conflict in the current commercial world. It can as well be seen as the functional and necessary part and its management is seen where the emphasis is on the axiom that it must be in the interest of all the parties to avoid disputes by managing conflict in such a way that disputes do not arise as this is sometimes described as dispute avoidance. The understanding of a dispute on the other hand it is important as it can be said to only develop when conflict is not or cannot be managed. A dispute can be described as the unnecessary or dysfunctional element that brings about a diversion of resources from the real goal in terms of settling unnecessary scores. During dispute resolution, there must be occasions where the parties have legitimate disputes and that the techniques of dispute resolution are employed to bring about the conclusion or resolution of the dispute. Commercial management needs to recognise both conflict management and dispute resolution and hence have a different approach in addressing each of them. There has been strong evidence for the ability of commercial banks to signal their strong conflicts through their organisational structure. Contrary to the impression in the congressional hearings, the potential for conflict of interest was not something that was discovered among commercial banks the day after the 1929 crash of the stock market. Some bankers were well aware of the problem even in the middle decade, before the market heated up. The farmers’

Friday, October 18, 2019

Adults learn best when learning by and from experience Essay

Adults learn best when learning by and from experience - Essay Example Witt, 2003; Manning, 2003; Michelson, 1996; Wilhelm, 1997). The child is a professional learner and his/her life revolves around school attendance and study, to the degree that learning may be defined as the child's foremost priority and responsibility. The situation is entirely different where the adult learner is concerned, with career and familial responsibilities functioning as the foremost priorities and study/learning, a secondary concern which may even be resented insofar as it impinges upon the adult's free time or the attention he wants to direct towards his other concerns (DeWitt, 2003; Manning, 2003; Michelson, 1996; Wilhelm, 1997). The articulated differential between adult and child learners has given rise to an entire body of literature on adult learning and teaching approaches and strategies. Each of the theories or learning strategies proposed for employment with adult learners is validated by a wealth of empirical evidence but, educational psychologists have incontro vertibly established experiential learning to be the optimal learning strategy vis--vis adults. Through a discursive analysis of this particular learning theory, its application s and outcomes, concomitant with a subjective experiential overview, the essay shall affirm the utility of this teaching-learning approach and argue that its strength primarily emanates from the fact that it embraces the principles of variant learning-teaching theories but maintains that assimilation of the learnt can only occur pending practice an application. However, rather than simply proceed from the assumption that adults learn best when they learn from, by and through experience, the essay shall first overview the scholarship of learning, present the variant and more popular of the learning theories and argue that even though each is inherently valid, experiential learning remains the most effect vis--vis the adult student both because it embraces the major precepts and teaching strategies presented b y those theories and extends beyond their confines. Nevertheless, and as the argument shall highlight, irrespective of the learning theory that a tutor selects, if the aim is to create a dynamic and constructive learning environment, characterised by efficient and effective learning, the tutor must integrate elements of the experiential learning theory into his/her teaching style, especially as pertains to learning from, by and through experience. The Scholarship of Learning Learning theories abound and rose in concomitance with the evolution of psychology and formalised educational systems. The primary aim of the aforementioned theories, as Ehreman and Oxford (1990) explain was the development of the ideal learning and teaching strategy. In immediate comparison, the scholarship of learning and teaching is a recent pedagogical development. Defined by Kreber and Cranton (2000) as the systemisation of academic inquiry and research into the most effective, or ideal teaching and learning

Why Cash Flow From Operations is important information Article

Why Cash Flow From Operations is important information - Article Example Operating expenses are subtracted from the operating revenues to extract the net cash flow from operating activities; this is why it is so important for small businesses to keep in check its operating cash flows. The other reasons why cash flow from operating activities is so important for small businesses is its ability to quickly determine the immediate financial health of the company. Cash flow is important as it gives the firm the ability to pay off current expenses. The current expenses usually include; labor costs and debt repayments. For these reasons, cash flow from operations (CFO) is important for both parties; the firm as well as the lenders and creditors. The creditors can assess the investment potential of the company from its CFO. Small businesses usually start with debt financing and the interest is an operating cash flow, since this figure is adjusted for liabilities, depreciation and receivables (Ross, Westerfield, Jordan, 2012), an operating cash flow is generally more accurate measure of how much cash the business has generated as compared to other measures such as Net Income (NI) or Earnings Before Interests and Taxes

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Covert Action Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Covert Action - Essay Example The case facts are that either a coup or the outright â€Å"elimination† of Bashar Al-Assad is possible through an asset that could organize such action, embedded within the Syrian establishment. There is merit in covert action in this case, given the hard line stance of Al-Assad, the intractable nature of the war and of the positions of the two camps, the international opposition to the actions of the Syrian government and the need to stop the escalation of the violence to prevent further massive bloodshed, and the atrocious nature of the way thousands have already perished in the hands of the government forces (Bennet, 2005; Chulov, 2012; International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect, 2012; MacFarquahar, 2011; Mawad and Gladstone, 2012; Middle East Policy Council, 2012; The New York Times Company, 2012; Rosenbach, 2009; Best, 2011; Cumming,2010 ). The literature tells us that covert actions convey many benefits to the US and to the international community, as a means to secure the interests of the international community and in the US where diplomacy and the legal channels are slow, cumbersome, ineffective, or just plainly deadlocked for a variety of reasons. Covert action essentially short circuits and bypasses all those difficulties. Moreover, an essential element of covert action is that it can be denied, while at the same time providing the US with a means to depose the intractable regime of Bashar Al-Assad and save thousands of lives more from the on-going attack of the Syrian government of its own people. On the other hand, the risks include that the covert action can backfire and strengthen the ranks and the resolve of the Al-Assad forces. The backlash can include more civilian deaths in retaliatory attacks on the public.

Week 2 Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Week 2 - Coursework Example In this regard, comparative analysis of existing circumstance may influence the decision of an individual when it comes to ethics. In this respect, informed judgment must always be made by an individual to achieve the maximum results on the grounds of ethical expectations. When one is entangled in a situation where a difficult situation has to be made, exceptions on absolute ethical standards are always inevitable (Finser, 2003). There are various incidents that justifies disregard to absolute ethical standards. The motive may sometime justify an action and hence support deviation from absolute ethical standards. Take the instance where one plots to steal cakes to feed a starving family. Absolute ethical approach would consider this action as a wrong but the prevailing circumstance and motives turns out right. In this regard, the situation should be an exception of ethical absolutism. Another situation where the absolute ethical standard may disregarded is where one person is to be killed in an attempt to save several others. For instance, a driver who finds himself in a dilemma situation with a pedestrian to avoid hitting in an incident of brake failure while carrying several people may resort to running over the one pedestrian to save the mass. Although killing is wrong, acting in favor of the mass is ethically justified Finser, 2003). The examples and supportive facts discussed shows need to disobey absolute ethical standards in some

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Covert Action Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Covert Action - Essay Example The case facts are that either a coup or the outright â€Å"elimination† of Bashar Al-Assad is possible through an asset that could organize such action, embedded within the Syrian establishment. There is merit in covert action in this case, given the hard line stance of Al-Assad, the intractable nature of the war and of the positions of the two camps, the international opposition to the actions of the Syrian government and the need to stop the escalation of the violence to prevent further massive bloodshed, and the atrocious nature of the way thousands have already perished in the hands of the government forces (Bennet, 2005; Chulov, 2012; International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect, 2012; MacFarquahar, 2011; Mawad and Gladstone, 2012; Middle East Policy Council, 2012; The New York Times Company, 2012; Rosenbach, 2009; Best, 2011; Cumming,2010 ). The literature tells us that covert actions convey many benefits to the US and to the international community, as a means to secure the interests of the international community and in the US where diplomacy and the legal channels are slow, cumbersome, ineffective, or just plainly deadlocked for a variety of reasons. Covert action essentially short circuits and bypasses all those difficulties. Moreover, an essential element of covert action is that it can be denied, while at the same time providing the US with a means to depose the intractable regime of Bashar Al-Assad and save thousands of lives more from the on-going attack of the Syrian government of its own people. On the other hand, the risks include that the covert action can backfire and strengthen the ranks and the resolve of the Al-Assad forces. The backlash can include more civilian deaths in retaliatory attacks on the public.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

International Strategic Management Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

International Strategic Management - Assignment Example This study seeks to investigate about the strategic management of Etihad Airways, since the Great Depression of 2007. Studies have shown that there have hardly been any companies that could escape from consequences of the recession and aviation is regarded as one of the worst affected sectors. As a result, choosing Ethihad to evaluate their strategic management approach is justified. Therefore, before proceeding further, the study throws light on a brief description of the company. The analysis until now has revealed that the company had been quite successful in ventures that had been undertaken till date. The innovative partnerships of the company with most significant airlines of the world have created a long-term sustainability for the company. This assignment has discussed in details about strategies that had been undertaken by Etihad Airways during the difficult economic phase of global financial crisis that had crippled the world economy severely. This assignment has used various concepts of strategic management to understand business development of Etihad. It has been observed that even during the difficult economic phase, the company had achieved solid growth through strategic alliances with other Airlines, cost efficiency through fuel hedging, cutting down operational cost and promoting development in a sustainable manner. The outcome from following these strategies had resulted in strong financial growth.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Discrimination towards Asians Essay Example for Free

Discrimination towards Asians Essay The expansion of America was a realization within the political and financial elite that there is a need for America to create markets in foreign countries for the American goods. By the turn of the 1890s there was a lot of surplus in goods that we need to penetrate overseas markets to address under consumption and economic crisis. The United States was under the premise that the countries with the largest navies and military force would eventually inherit the earth (Zinn, 1942). Before the election of President William McKinley he said that the American people needs overseas market for the surplus products since the American soil and factories are producing more than what the American people needed. This surplus should be of the advantage of the country since it will bring commercial supremacy. This supremacy led to the expansionist view in politics and even in the naval forces. President Roosevelt created propaganda for expansion in the 1890s together with other political elites who share his expansionist standpoint. Roosevelt was perhaps the greatest expansionist of his time. He was up to penetrate Hawaii, Philippines and China. In 1898, 10% of American goods were sold in the foreign markets which amounted to billions of dollars. By the year 1895, the foreign investment of American Capitalists has reached billions of dollars especially in the steel industry. This further fanned the need for the American capitalists to create overseas markets and this made engaging in war an option. As in the case of Philippines, the conflict between the Spanish conquerors and the Filipino rebels paved way for the intervention of America in the guise of â€Å"generosity†. In 1899, the American government under the presidency of William McKinley sent troops to the Philippines to aide the Filipinos in fighting their war against the Spaniards. Mckinley states four reasons on why he decided to colonize the Philippines. The first was he can’t give the Philippines back to the Spaniards. Second is that he can’t give the Philippines to the French. Third is that he thinks that the Philippines is â€Å"unfit† to govern for themselves and the forth is that he has no choice but to â€Å"adopt† the Filipinos and â€Å"civilize† them (Zinn, 1942). By the term â€Å"civilized† and â€Å"unfit† he was under the notion that Filipinos are savages, uneducated, and unscrupulous. This only shows that even the president of a democratic country thinks lowly of a race that has endured 300 years of oppression and was courageous enough to ouster a government as strong as Spain. The country was under the Spanish rule for more than 300 hundred years and the Filipinos were craving for freedom. The Filipinos under the leadership of Emilio Aguinaldo were gaining much power at that time and some historians say that the Filipino people could have won the war without the American intervention. Since the Americans came on cue, just as the war was supposed to end, America took all the credit and branded themselves as heroes and liberator of the country. This scenario is similar to what the United States did to Cuba. When the Cuban rebels sought help from the United States, they sent American troops instead of financial resources (Zinn, 1942). When the Spanish colonizers where defeated, the US did not recognize the efforts of the rebels and took over Cuba. Before the US freed Cuba, they made sure that Platt amendment will be added to the constitution giving the US rights to intervene with the Cuban government. Some US bases where also retained and the Cuban market was remained opened to American exports. In the case of the Philippines, US intervention came in together with education, clothing, healthcare and other basic necessities that were deprived by the Spaniards. Since the Spaniards aimed to suppress education among Filipinos and keep them dependent to their regime, the â€Å"Education for everyone scheme† of the United States was a hit for most of the Filipinos. However the struggle continued for those who seek real independence (Grey, 2003). The expansionist point of view of Americans towards the Philippines was regarded as acts of robbery and oppression by a black soldier designated in the Philippines. It was a bloody war as news articles and journals of soldiers revealed that they shot Filipinos like â€Å"rabbits† including the women and children who were helpless (Zinn, 1942). Discrimination in the political system was also evident since only the Americans hold office and Filipinos where kept at the lower offices of the political structure. Similar to the faith of those non-whites, the Filipino people where discriminated even in today’s society. Due to economic reasons a great percentage of Filipinos are now working abroad as domestic workers. Blue collar jobs such as domestic helpers, construction workers, waiters and etc are the most common employment for Filipinos residing in the United States (Manalansan, 2003). Because of this, stereotypes where based upon the assumption that Filipinos are uneducated and are capable of doing only menial jobs. In fact, in a British dictionary the meaning of the word Filipina is â€Å"domestic helper†. This may be attributed to the fact that 90% of Filipinos working abroad are females. However, we fail to see is that a large percentage of these Filipino workers have a college degree and are in fact educated. Sociology dictates that since Filipinos have been subjected to three colonizers (Spanish, Americans and Japanese) they are by nature patient, enduring and industrious. Thus, doing menial jobs are sacrifices they are willing to make just to alleviate their families current economic status (Manalansan, 2003). Today, the Philippines is the worlds major exporter of manpower especially in health care. Filipino nurses and care givers pride themselves as pioneers in their craft and the country even hails them as the present day heroes. However, when they set foot on the foreign soil, that pride turns to discrimination. Though they are well capable and well trained in nursing, skin color often hinders them from being treated the same way as that of the white nurses. A quote from the TV show Desperate Housewives uttered by Teri Hatcher says: â€Å"Okay, before we go any further, can I check those diplomas because I just wanna make sure that theyre not from some med school in the Philippines. This only supports the fact that Filipinos are still caught under the stereotype that they are incapable and are discriminated upon (Salanga, 2007). In comparison to the African-Americans, Filipinos experience greater amount of discrimination due to the fact that they are smaller, second is the portrayal of the Philippines as a country of terrorists, third is that they are uneducated and forth is that most of them don’t speak good English. But unknown to most Americans is that there is a thriving business of call centers in the Philippines which started in 2000. When we dial customer service and ask for help for a certain product, we might be seeking advice from Filipinos that we discriminate against. The thing is we don’t even notice that they are Filipinos by the way they speak. They are proficient in English and are able to address of plights properly, hence, the notion that Filipinos are dumb serves as an irony. In call centers, we ask for help from Filipinos and not the other way around. At present the Call center industry in the Philippines captures 20% of the world market share in call centers and the Philippine government aims to get 50% of share by the year 2008 (Ortigas Online, 2007). Filipinos today face what sociologists call double jeopardy. Because Filipinos are discriminated, they have difficulty of finding good jobs. It is estimated that a majority of Filipinos in the United States today are still holding blue collar jobs though some of them have white collar jobs. Some have even made it big time in the United States just like the lead singer of the Pussy Cat Dolls who is a Filipino-American (Ezugwu, 2007). Though some have made it up in the economic ladder, Filipinos still comprise the majority in service sectors jobs in the United States. Their poverty reinforces their minority status. Thus, the so-called â€Å"ladder of discrimination† as what sociologists call is also reinforced. Filipinos have the difficulty of upgrading their status by economic means because of these stereotypes. Thus, white Americans always associate Filipinos with poverty, terrorism, violence and ignorance. This then hinders them from alleviating their status and making their chances at getting high paying jobs a lot slimmer as compared to the whites. However, when I check the web and type â€Å"Philippines† in the search box it is amazing how it differs from what the media is projecting. As a country the Philippines has wonderful places and beautiful culture. They are deeply rooted to their religion and values which make them generally warm and happy individuals (Tope, L. Nonan-Mercado, 2007). Their history with the Spaniards taught Filipinos how to be industrious and enduring as they were colonized by Spain for 300 years. These characteristics of Filipinos show in their approach to their work here in the United States. I think the fact that they are willing to occupy menial jobs that most Americans would shun is a manifestation that they are hardworking people. Perhaps it is this realization that led to further acceptance to the Filipino culture and the Filipino people. In the United States there are Filipino communities in every state (The Filipino, 2007) and a lot of Americans prefer to have Filipino wives saying that Filipinos make a loving wife and mother. The country also has a strong president as of pres time and aims to renew the image of the Philippines as a country filled with communists. President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo wasfeatured in the Times Magazine for the second time and was hailed as one of the most powerful women in Asia (Spaeth, 2001). Since she is very stern in her fight against terrorism the Philippines and the Filipinos are beginning to portray a wonderful picture in our minds. In addition to that, society has become more lenient as to the case of racism. Many citizens are now aware that skin color or race does not limit a person’s ability to do his job properly. Filipinos, much like the other minority groups should be given the chance to grow and show their abilities. The growing popularity of snit racism and equality has made some impact on the way Filipinos are treated, however it is not yet evident in most cases. Reference