Tuesday, April 2, 2019
An integral part of teaching
An total routine of dogmaHow and why we assess our children has a massive impact on their life in facts of life and thus on how and what we plan and t distributively, and how children learn. The internal Curriculum defines judging as an integral part of pedagogy and breeding (1999, p.17), tensioning the value of assessing the influence of study and give instructioning as comfortably as the termination. Suggestions on a trim of estimation strategies and tools argon allow ind in the broadcast but to modify instructors and domesticates to maintain the development of good appraisal practice, more detailed guidance is necessary. To pay off with it is perhaps necessary to define sagaciousness as all process use to inform teachers as to a scholars progress and learning. There are many diametric types of perspicacity, usually discussed as different purposes of judgment season these sagacitys certainly differ in several fall guyifi hind endt aspects they a re united in their aspirations of making a positive contribution to bringing approximatelywhat learning.There are two main forms of perspicacity plastic and summational. I bring forth observed some(prenominal) types in the physiqueroom, recognising that the make to excellent mind practice is to understand what each form and their methods contribute. From these observations I understand that in army to go bad successful in my pedagogy I pick out to construct my teaching to maximise the success of twain formative and summative legal opinion in my classroom. To throw in me competently use both assessment for learning and assessment of learning I must develop a range and knowledge of assessment purposes and strategies which I will now discuss. pliant assessment can provide a snapshot moment by moment picture of the success of teaching and learning. It provides the two way dialog betwixt educator and child, the knowledge which enhances pedagogy allowing teaching to wr ick pertinent and cliply. Assessment for Learning in particular will be a suck up focus for me as I look for opportunities to streng because my ingest teaching practice, having observed first hand the strong contribution AfL, which the National Strategies defines asa natural, integral and essential part of telling learning and teaching and is a key element of personalised learning. Teachers and children continually bound on how learning is progressing, see where onward motions can be and order the abutting travel to take (2004),can make towards effective teaching. It makes the difference between self-assured and stimulated bookmans, and disenfranchised educatees who are uncertain of the rationale down the learning objective. The case for clearly communicating the learning outcome to the class is picked up on by Clarke (2006). In my own regard and observation, this results in making learning pertinent especially when the learning intention is put in the context of prev ious and future learning. It to a fault befriends to illuminate which areas of eccentric knowledge are required to teach at which time and how this study or teaching of skills is to be structured. Clarke also recommends that the teacher works with children to identify success criteria. These are utilize to supply feedback to both pupils and the teacher regarding the purpose to which the learning objective has been met. Consequently, the use of formative assessment enriches the process of teaching, planning and curriculum development. It can inform not only the short call goals for the class, but also the negotiated curriculum, as children are encouraged to become industrious learners by reflecting on their own progress and motivation. It must be hard-pressed that not all assessment removes to be quantitative, nor does it need to be recorded .The teachers own reflective process is a vital part of assessment. The purpose of summative assessment is to illustrate that pupils impart met their learning goals or reached a certain standard of accomplishment.Formative assessment in rudimentary definition is the collection and use of secern about the learning in relation to the explicit objectives and outcomes of a lesson. This type of assessment can then be employ and beed by the teacher to identify what the pupil has achieved, any gaps in knowledge and to decide what stairs are compulsory to enable the pupil to reach their potential and unit outcome. I take over observed formative assessment be used to inform teachers of pupil progress and to enable them to adapt their planning and teaching to their childrens needs. The aim of formative assessment is to impact positively on pupil learning and effective pedagogy. There is a growing amount of demonstrate suggesting that formative assessment raises both progress and attainment levelsAssessment begins in this way in the Early Years Foundation stage (EYFS), where in 2003 the Foundation power point Profi le (FSP) was introduced. The FSP consists of 13 surmounts relating to creative development, knowledge and understanding of the world, personal, social and excited development, physical development, language and literacy and mathematical development. Children are assessed on each scale and their progress towards achieving early learning goals is judged. During my previous experience in my cup of tea school, I have observed how a pupil profile is build up over the EYFS, so that evidence can be used formatively and later summarised against the performance descriptions of the scales for physical compositioning at the end of each term. by dint of my experience of the EYFS I have seen how teacher- demonstrated this form of assessment is, as the evidence accumulated for each child is derived from on-going learning activities. This normally takes tell through the use of observation sheets and post-its. Occasionally, a more formal assessment takes place where the teacher asks the chi ld in question if they can perform a specific task, the evidence from which is then logged and used as assessment information, even so these are still situated within the normal sidereal day to day routines of the children and no cause of distress. (Q 11 12)In comparison to the FSP, the assessment children experience in Key Stages 1 and 2 varies greatly and summative assessment plays a greater role. Summative assessment is the assessment of learning and is used to record the achievements of separates at a particular point in their learning (usually at the end of a topic, term or year). Rather than a steady trickle of specific learning goals, it refers to a broader learning outcome which has been achieved over a longer period of time. In contrast to the whimsical outcomes of formative assessment, summative assessments are used in several different ways, some relating to individual pupils and some to aggregated results of groups of pupils.At the end of both Y2 and Y6, children ar e expected to undertake external tasks and tests in mathematics and slope (SATS). The results of Key Stage 2 SATS in particular are a cause of immense jam for both pupils and teachers, as they are report and used to inform guinea pig statistics. It is only at the end of each Key Stage that pupil attainment must be report in terms of national curriculum levels however there is also a statutory requirement to provide parents with a summative report once each year. Many schools choose to include within this the levels children have reached during the academic year this trend has been reinforced by the use of ex gratia SATS for years between 2 and 6. In addition to the assessment and bring in of individual pupils, test results (KS1 and KS2 SATS) are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the education provided by teachers, schools and local authorities and compared nationally. The results of these examinations have huge implications and considerable grandness for teachers as the re sults are used to inform targets which schools must take answerableness for meeting. There are established brass national targets for the percentage of children achieving a level 4 in the key stage 2 tasks which schools are required to set targets for. The consequences of not achieving these targets are severe, with schools become subject to OFSTED inspections and categories, with inadequacy of attainment becoming the main cause of a school being placed in special measures. (Q 11 12 13)In order to avoid such consequences, teachers are facing constant pressure to project children are achieving age cerebrate expectations, amid fears that they will fail to hit Government targets. Children in our primary schools are in danger of being taught a limited timetable as some schools and teachers focus on teaching to the test. This is in spite of recommendations by OFSTED that whilesome schools are able to rear pupils for tests without sacrificing the wider curriculumbut an emphasis on the core subjects limits what pupils do, particularly as teachers prepare them for key stage 2 exams (Marley 2008)As well as placing pressure upon teachers, national testing has a huge impact on pupils. It can cause a lack of motivation for lower ability children, as well as a view of learning as mathematical product quite than process for all children. There is much attention focussed on those children who are performing conscionable beneath age related levels, while those who are either too far above or below the target level suffering a lack of attention.For my son, and for more or less 10-year olds in the country, the next nine months will be a sterile, undertake and meaningless exercise in drilling and cramming. Its nothing to do with the skills of his teacher who seems outstanding. Nor do I blame the school. Its called preparing for Key Stage 2 SATS (2006)It is clear that the emphasis has to be placed back on teaching rather than targets and tests. How then do we ensure t he progress and attainment of the children in our schools without tapering off the curriculum?Assessing pupil progress (APP) has been accepted as recognising the differing purposes and audiences for assessment on both a day-to-day and periodic time scale. On a day-to-day capacity it provides a closer view of pupils, enabling teachers to halt childrens learning through use of effective classroom intervention. Periodically it reviews a broader range of pupils work, which in turn can inform planning and enable teachers to monitor progress and attainment. The purpose of APP is to aliment effective planning teaching and learning, The use of informed and consistent target setting will broaden to play a crucial part in ensuring that teachers know what to teach to allow children to achieve their aims by guiding and challenging them. In my tail end school APP is used to support this aim, ensuring that targets are both appropriate and relevant to individuals. Similarly APP can be used to identify gaps in a pupils learning, allowing teachers to reflect upon their own teaching, especially in those cases where there are harsh mistakes and misconceptions on the part of the pupils. APP also reinforces Assessment for Learning (AfL) as a daily occurrence, leading to a more constructive impact on teaching and learning. In national guidance there is an increasing emphasis on the role of APP in tracking and recording performance. Whilst most schools be intimate the opportunities to increase their teacher assessments consistency and reliability, it will take time for APP to become second nature to staff. However, the overarching aim of APP is clear it aims to enable us to discover and celebrate overall progress in an aspect of learning, rather than just assessing learning of the most recently taught and learned. (Q 12 13 26a)As well as internal methods of assessment, schools have entrance to national and local data in forms of the raiseonline and national and local bench marking data. This enables schools to pinpoint how well they are doing and any reformments they could and should make. Schools can make comparisons, not only on a national level but also against schools with similar levels of deprivation (eligibility for free school meals) or schools with similar levels of contextual value added. Supporting all schools improvement processes by providing a variety of methods to analyse their performance data as part of the self evaluation form (SEF). It is necessary however to interpret benchmarking data with care as rather than providing schools with the answers it is more likely that it would help them identify questions and issues that may need to be investigated. Whilst comparing data between schools may give accurate portrayals of a schools performance, it does not necessarily accounting system for it. (Q 13)It is my opinion, after research and school based observations, that a successful assessment is an open one, where everyone involved, f rom staff to pupils are aware to some extent of what and how evidence is to be assessed. It is essential that we are completely transparent about the need for and purpose of assessment and why it is carried out in particular ways. Feedback to pupils is key in formative assessment, as it is only by showing pupils the steps they need to take in order to reach the next steps in their learning that we as teachers can bring about learning. slice we cannot learn for the students, we can use feedback to make adjustments to our planning and teaching, enabling students to access the curriculum with all the tools they require. Even the very youngest pupils can be attached some explanation of the assessment process, which in turns enables children to both self and partner assess.Self and compeer assessment includes pupil involvement in both setting the success criteria and how they will show that they have been successful, empowering them to take realize of their own learning. There are h uge advantages to this type of assessment, the most pregnant of which are that itdevelops lifelong evaluation skills whilst supporting independent learningincreases pupil motivation by involving them in the assessment processtreats assessment as part of learning, so mistakes are seen as opportunities rather than a sign of failure.reduces the amount of teacher assessment but improves the quality.In my base school I have observed a number of self and peer assessment strategies including children marking each others work, the use of a traffic redness system, suggesting improvements to each others work and reflecting upon their own. Of course there are possible issues contact the use of peer and self assessment, with many believing that it should be used only for formative assessment as it is possible that children may allow friendships to affect their objectivity. It is necessary that teachers use peer and self assessment to support their own assessment, teaching and planning rather that relying upon it completely. (Q 28)Through my reading and observations during my time in school, it has become clear to me that there is no part of fundamental interaction which is not assessed. Though this may not seem manageable, the variation of assessment strategies that I have witnessed, I have come to the realisation that assessment does not always have to have a written outcome. Instead, it suggests to me that assessment can bring about conscious teaching and informed planning. My ontogeny understanding of a range of assessment strategies including APP, self and peer assessment , AfL among others, will enable me to use day-to-day assessment to provide the pupils in my care with instant feedback, relevant next steps, appropriate support and individual targets, allowing me to adjust my planning in line with the needs of those in my care. (Q 26a, 12, 13, 19)Although I believe that some form of summative assessment is necessary in schools, I believe that on many occasions g rades, marks and levels are assigned to pupils work more often than strictly necessary when it may be more appropriate to provide formative feedback. This is something I particularise to avoid in my own practice, especially as I have experienced the use of excellent formative assessment in my base school. I have found that feedback given in this way to inform a target is highly effective in motivating pupils, and goes some way towards personalising learning. Furthermore it builds confidence and the long-term aim of helping children to become independent learners. It is essential then, to ensure good teaching and learning, that assessment involves a great deal more than just testing. It should be a continuing process that encompasses many activities, both formal and informal, designed to monitor and improve teaching and in turn the bringing about of learning crosswise all areas of the curriculum.(Q22, 25a) Teaching will inevitably be focused on what s assessed. When conducted by te sting this impact is bound to have a narrowing effect on what is taught because tests only sample the learning outcomes and include those outcomes more easily assessed by tests. If teachers use a much wider range of assessment methods, the result can be much more positive.