Tuesday, February 19, 2019
To what extent was the international situation in January 1933 conducive to Hitler achieving his foreign policy aims?
The extent to which the international situation in January 1933 was tributary to Hitler achieving his exotic policy aims is debat able-bodied. at that place are a variety of factors which both(prenominal) assisted and hindered Hitler in achieving his aims. Some call aims of unlike policy were as follows, to destroy communism, to amalgamate the German speaking population, to wipe out the Jews, to annex the East and to revenge Germanys defeat from the First World War. Some of the key factors which need to be looked at include the lack of agreement oer how to deal with Germany, the internal sickness of Western countries, the helplessness of the confederation of Nations, the vindicatory attitudes of certain countries and successor states.Many countries, bring outicularly France had a defensive mind-set towards Germany, as a repeat of the First World War was surely not wanted. British foreign policy under Baldwin was based upon semipublic opinion. The horrors of the First World War meant that there was a never once again mentality which shtup be shown by the oxford union debate in February 1933 which voted on the motion that this House would not fight for King and country. There was also laborious public opposition to rearmament and many thought rearmament would lone(prenominal) antagonise Hitler.Due to Frances worry of organism invaded again the Maginot line self-renunciation fortification was constructed in the years 1929-1938. This defence fortification however was scarce a problem to Hitler at all. This was because of the fact that it stopped at the Belgian border, which meant that there was still corridor open if Germany wanted to invade both France and Belgium. what is more France was politically divided and had 11 g everywherenments between 1932 and 1935. This therefore meant that there was equate ideology of fascism and communism and so there were no pull policies as to what to do with the German problem. French foreign policy was i nconsistent. This meant that Frances reactions to Hitler were delayed and weak and so therefore gave Hitler more encouragement. In contrast however France had the swear to develop links and ally with countries on Germanys eastern borders such(prenominal) as Czechoslovakia and Romania. This therefore hindered Hitler as it gave France further defence and hold water.There was a clear lack of agreement between the powerful countries as to what to do most Germany. France was very concerned at the possibility of a German menace and had wanted very harsh Versailles terms whereas Britain was preoccupied with its empire and favoured with a revision of field pansy. If the Treaty of Versailles was to be probably implemented it needed the defy of the USA who failed to ratify the treaty in 1920. The United States then withdrew into isolationism. It green goddess therefore be seen that the European powers were not able to enforce peace alone.It do-nothing be seen that the confederation o f Nations both assisted and hindered Hitler in achieving his foreign policy aims. As the USA and USSR were not members of the League of Nations until 1934 they were not able to be part of making decisions and so gave Hitler and Germany more freedom. Key tell to show how the League of Nations was a failing peacekeeping organisation and thence assisting Hitler is from the Manchuria crisis in 1931. In this year Japan invaded Manchuria in China the League of Nations took no effective action.However, the League of Nations itself, although weak clearly limited Hitlers opportunities. The League was an international body set up in order to extend peace and prevent aggression. Furthermore it had the power to call for economic sanctions and legions actions by member states. It can therefore be seen that the League of Nations hindered Hitlers foreign policy, but only to a certain extent due to its weakness and lack of effective action.When Hitler came to power in January 1933 he told the w orld he wanted to rid Germany of the problems of the Versailles Treaty in order to make her strong once more. To achieve this goal the country needed massive rearmament. Hitlers answer in February 1933 to a proposal from the Reich Ministry of Transport to build a reference shows the extent to which, in his view, the policy of rearmament was more important than anything else The next 5 years in Germany had to be devoted to rendition the German community again capable of bearing arms.Every publicly sponsored measure to stool employment had to be considered from the point of view of whether it was necessary with respect to rendering the German people again capable of bearing arms for forces service. Since 1922 under the Rapallo pact Germany had been rearming in the USSR and hade economic links. This clearly shows how the international was conducive to Hitlers aim of rearmament. Also In December 1932 there was a major(ip) conference over disarmament, where little happened.By 1933 it can be seen that Germany had in fact secured a substantial revision of the Treaty of Versailles as Germany was today a member of the League of Nations, rearmament was no longer subject to test and reparations had been, in effect, cancelled (at Lausanne, 1932)Various countries surrounding Germany contained German minorities and so this can be seen as an advantage to Hitlers foreign policy. An important aim of Hitlers was to unite all Germans, with many Germans in other countries it would be easier for Hitler to take over them. This is primarily because it is likely that the Germans in these countries, such as Czechoslovakia (300,000), Poland and Danzig (95%) would rather be part of Germany and would welcome German expansionism. In addition to this all of these countries were polished and militarily and political weak which therefore means there would be little opposition. Also many Austrians were in favour of becoming part of Germany.The German Domestic situation however was a lso important to Hitlers outside(prenominal) policy aims. In 1933 Hitler had only just made Chancellor and there were only the Nazis in government other than Hitler. This means that it is likely Hitler would make little support in government. Furthermore Hitler was dependent upon elite support and Hindenburg as President could still remove Hitler.In conclusion it can be seen that there is evidence both for against the international situation cosmos conducive to Hitlers Foreign policy aims. Whilst factors such as the USA being isolationist and the lack of agreement over how to deal with Germany were helpful to Hitler, others such as strong public opinion against war and Hitler being loss leader of a collation government show the problems that Hitler had to overcome.