Sunday, February 24, 2019
1. Initially Starbucks expanded planetaryly by licensing its format to foreign operators. It briefly became disenchanted with this strategy. wherefore? When Starbucks started its international expansion in japan, it initially immovable to license. As it is known licensing is the method of foreign proceeding whereby a wet in one country agrees to permit a company in another country to use the manufacturing, processing, trademark, know-how or nigh other accomplishment provided by the licensor1.Advantages of licensing are obvious it is less expensive, less risky as the risk is held by licensee and it ensures additional profitability with less initial investment. However, licensing has disadvantages and for Starbucks the primary(prenominal) disadvantages of licensing in Japan are This strategy did not give Starbucks the mince needed to ensure that the licensees closely followed Starbucks undefeated formula. Starbucks successful formula refers to its fundamental strategy To sell the companys own premium roasted coffee berry, along with freshly brewed espresso-style beverages, a variety of pastries, coffee introductionories, teas, and other produces, in a druthersfully designed coffeehouse setting and also providing select customer service2.Starbucks found it necessary to successfully replicate the look, feel, and experience of an American Starbucks that is why Starbucks transferred American employees to the Japanese stores to help train workers in the Starbucks way. With licensing Starbucks had special harbour of expansion rate. Simultaneously with entry the market in Japan, in US Starbucks developed new cold beverage (Frappuchino) with Pepsi, signed charter with Dreyers for making ice cream. However, the expansion rate in Japan was not controlled under licensing agreement as could be done in US and the realization of new products was slow in Japan. 2. Why do you think Starbucks has now elected to expand internationally primarily through to pical anesthetic control stick endangers, to whom it licenses its format, as opposed using to a tenuous licensing strategy? critical point run a risk is an enterprise in which two or more investors share ownership and control everyplace property even ups and operation3. In short, the advantages of articulation venture are the company can be more informed about the bit in the market and how the consumers react to the products the fixed costs for new product entrance are dual-lane with the company synergy effect can be achieved. The main disadvantages of enounce ventures are that more capital investment is needed versus licensing the financial losses and risks are higher compared to licensing a potential conflict between partners exists.By using enunciate ventures Starbucks managed to share the cost and risks of developing its foreign markets with the licensee and at the same time to have higher control over the operations of the licensee. Another reason for expanding th rough topical anesthetic joint ventures was that Starbucks had access to local knowledge through the partner and can measure the process of product adaptation. Pure licensing did not give enough power to Starbucks to control which helped Starbucks to concord competitive advantage.The pure licensing limits the important information about market situation in the country. 3. What are the advantages of a joint-venture entry mode for Starbucks over debut through solely have subsidiaries? On occasion, Starbucks has chosen a wholly have subsidiary to control its foreign expansion (e. g. , in Britain and Thailand). Why? Entering a new market is always risky and is tended to(p) with huge costs. Using joint venture model allows Starbucks to have controls over those risks by sharing them with a local company.The advantages of joint ventures, if compared with the wholly own subsidiaries, are the opportunities to share the costs and risks associated with entering and developing in the mar ket, having access to greater resources as well as getting acquainted with the local market, its culture, characteristics with the help of the local partners experience and knowledge. An advantage of Joint venture is also the opportunity to widen economic scope devalued building reputation is often difficult, time consuming and expensive.At a joint venture, Starbucks has the opportunity to widen its economic scope without spending also much money and waiting for a long time4. With the Joint venture model, the local company also has incentives and motivations for the total joined success and growth. It would be much lengthier, difficult and expensive process in discipline of entering through wholly owned subsidiary. One more advantage of joint venture is still having large measure of control over the situation, confine down though the control is more limited if compared with a wholly owned subsidiary, however it gives the opportunity to have sufficient control over the local sit uation.A joint venture example of Starbucks is entering into a joint venture with a Swiss company, Bon Appetit Group, the largest food service company in Switzerland. The disadvantages of joint venture are the following it takes time to build the right partnership relationship with another business, especially when the objectives of the two partners are not entirely agreed and communicated5, or there are differences in ethnic and management styles. Also control and decision making are sometimes compromised in joint ventures.Since there is an agreement that divides which one leave behind take over a particular operation, the other may not be satisfied with how the things are worked out with another. This leads to another disadvantage of a joint venture. at that place would be no communication or agreement issues in case of wholly owned subsidiaries. Another disadvantage is that the profit generated in the local market is shared. There are several cases when Starbucks preferred a w holly owned subsidiary in the process of its foreign expansions.There were different reasons for making such decisions. One reason was if the country had clutch operations up for sale. Such example was in Britain, when Starbucks acquired an existing coffee chain that was modeled after Starbucks. An American couple, originally from Seattle, had started Seattle Coffee with the bearing of establishing a Starbucks like chain in Britain. The chain was already successful some of the risks that would normally be associated with introducing a new concept to a foreign market were eliminated.The other reason of choosing a wholly owned subsidiary model would be if control was very important in the country of expansion or if the country didnt have an divert joint venture partners which have prerequisites acceptable by Starbucks. In case of Thailand, Starbucks chose to shift to a wholly owned operation, after the jointed venture with Coffee Partners, a local Thai company, didnt manage to sne ak capital from Thai banks for further pre-agreed expansion of Starbucks in Thailand.Thus by acquiring Coffee Partners, Starbucks had a goal to have more control over the expansion strategy in Thailand. 4. Which theory of FDI best explains the international expansion strategy adopted by Starbucks? Starbucks followed Internalization theory, which suggests that when licensing is difficult, foreign identify investment is appropriate. The theory was developed by Buckley and Casson, in 1976 and then by Hennart, in 1982 and Casson, in 1983.Initially, the theory was launched by Coase in 1937 in a national context and Hymer in 1976 in an international context. In his doctorial Dissertation, Hymer identified two major determinants of FDI. One was the removal of competition. The other was the advantages which some firms possess in a particular activity (Hymer, 1976). 6 Advantages of Foreign bear Investment are A firm will favor FDI over exporting as an entry strategy when transportation c osts or trade barriers make exporting unattractive A firm will favor FDI over licensing when it wishes to maintain control over its technological know-how, or over its operations and business strategy, or when the firms capabilities are simply not amenable to licensing7 This theory fits Starbucks wants to maintain product whole tone and brand identity in all countries it has internationally expanded, to be sensed in the same way in all cultures, and preserve taste preferences, work habits and ways of doing business all over the world.